2022MNRAS.511.5104M


Query : 2022MNRAS.511.5104M

2022MNRAS.511.5104M - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 511, 5104-5119 (2022/April-3)

Wind properties of Milky Way and SMC massive stars: empirical Z dependence from CMFGEN models.

MARCOLINO W.L.F., BOURET J.-C., ROCHA-PINTO H.J., BERNINI-PERON M. and VINK J.S.

Abstract (from CDS):

Detailed knowledge about stellar winds and evolution at different metallicities is crucial for understanding stellar populations and feedback in the Local Group of galaxies and beyond. Despite efforts in the literature, we still lack a comprehensive, empirical view of the dependence of wind properties on metallicity (Z). Here, we investigate the winds of O and B stars in the Milky Way (MW) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We gathered a sample of 96 stars analysed by means of the NLTE code CMFGEN. We explored their wind strengths and terminal velocities to address the Z dependence, over a large luminosity range. The empirical wind-luminosity relation (WLR) obtained updates and extends previous results in the literature. It reveals a luminosity and Z dependence, in agreement with the radiatively driven wind theory. For bright objects (log L/L >= 5.4), we infer that {dot}M ∼Z0.5–0.8. However, this dependence seems to get weaker or vanish at lower luminosities. The analysis of the terminal velocities suggests a shallow Zn dependence, with n ∼ 0.1-0.2, but it should be confirmed with a larger sample and more accurate V determinations. Recent results on SMC stars based on the PoWR code support our inferred WLR. On the other hand, recent bow-shocks measurements stand mostly above our derived WLR. Theoretical calculations of the WLR are not precise, specially at low L, where the results scatter. Deviations between our results and recent predictions are identified to be due to the weak wind problem and the extreme terminal velocities predicted by the models. The Z dependence suggested by our analysis deserves further investigations, given its astrophysical implications.

Abstract Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society

Journal keyword(s): stars: atmospheres - stars: fundamental parameters - stars: massive - stars: mass-loss - stars: winds, outflows

Simbad objects: 107

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Number of rows : 107
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 12390 1
2 SK 10 s*b 00 46 42.1591125672 -73 24 55.494317340 11.903 12.984 13.176   13.35 O6.5I(f) 44 0
3 AzV 43 * 00 48 47.8983993528 -72 46 24.890763828   13.76 13.88     O9II 18 0
4 AzV 47 * 00 48 51.4911440520 -73 25 58.537753356 12.263 13.314 13.496   14.00 O8III 33 0
5 BBB SMC 1 * 00 50 17.2067283312 -72 53 30.259838832 12.093 13.144 13.326 13.39 13.47 OC7.5III((f)) 42 0
6 LIN 156 s*b 00 50 32.4050818488 -72 52 36.441355908 11.553 12.604 12.756   12.89 O5.5I(f) 49 0
7 AzV 77 * 00 50 33.5144777088 -72 47 45.008016756 12.74 13.79 13.95   14.12 O7III 10 0
8 AzV 83 s*b 00 50 52.0015192368 -72 42 14.940550980 12.233 13.244 13.366   13.67 O7Iaf+ 47 0
9 AzV 95 * 00 51 21.6002057448 -72 44 14.875230300 12.67 13.64 13.83   13.95 O7III((f)) 38 0
10 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 10857 1
11 AzV 148 * 00 53 42.2323318536 -72 42 35.278898580 12.99 13.97 14.16   14.33 B0 13 0
12 AzV 170 s*b 00 55 42.4299731736 -73 17 30.523500780 12.86 13.82 14.11   14.25 O9.7I 29 0
13 AzV 177 * 00 56 44.1036082560 -72 03 31.678578504 13.22 14.39 14.62   14.90 O4Vz 25 0
14 AzV 189 * 00 57 32.5145162232 -72 28 51.133365372 13.29 14.34 14.47   14.67 B0(IV) 11 0
15 Cl* NGC 346 MPG 12 * 00 58 14.0865065520 -72 10 44.292892764   19.15 17.98   16.72 B0IV(Nstr) 32 0
16 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 28 * 00 58 31.7543622456 -72 10 57.965696544 13.58 14.73 14.94   15.23 OC6Vz 27 0
17 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 50 * 00 58 55.2212724984 -72 09 06.692331348 14.07 15.24 15.49   15.80 O8Vn 12 0
18 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 7 * 00 58 57.3961905528 -72 10 33.660822720 12.68 13.82 14.13   14.28 O4V((f+)) 52 0
19 Cl* NGC 346 W 3 * 00 59 00.7591806336 -72 10 28.171806492 11.46 12.61 12.80   13.63 O2III(f) 62 0
20 Cl* NGC 346 NMC 34 * 00 59 00.9631326096 -72 11 09.278888748 14.11 15.20 15.46   15.57 O6.5V 12 0
21 Cl* NGC 346 NMC 28 * 00 59 01.8187292184 -72 10 31.216864152   13.95 14.18     O5.5V((f+)) 31 0
22 Cl* NGC 346 NMC 17 * 00 59 06.7498587648 -72 10 41.262204828 13.05 14.19 14.33   14.60 O8V 21 0
23 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 51 * 00 59 08.6965433496 -72 10 14.136149136 14.03 15.17 15.40   15.62 O7Vz 15 0
24 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 22 * 00 59 18.6176208672 -72 11 09.887619084   14.65 14.91     O9V 20 0
25 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 46 Y*O 00 59 31.8683861040 -72 13 35.225231592   15.16 15.44     O7Vn 13 0
26 SK 80 s*b 00 59 31.9751731656 -72 10 46.106730444   12.12 12.31     O7Iaf+ 108 0
27 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 31 * 00 59 54.0614692656 -72 04 31.420184880 13.71 14.81 15.05   15.33 O8Vz 18 0
28 SK 84 * 01 00 06.7253852112 -72 47 19.124459916 12.58 13.71 13.91   14.16 O6V 42 0
29 AzV 267 * 01 01 15.6926628168 -72 06 35.367953616   14.58 14.84     O7.5-8V 18 0
30 AzV 307 * 01 02 32.1812082792 -72 39 42.569272548 13.34 13.88 14.02   14.26 O9III 11 0
31 AzV 326 * 01 03 09.308 -72 25 56.69   13.84 13.92 14.07 14.40 B0(IV) 12 0
32 RMC 28 s*b 01 03 10.5480205584 -72 02 14.335031256 11.833 12.924 13.086   13.60 O9.7I 40 0
33 IC 1613 GiC 01 04 48.4071 +02 07 10.185   10.42 10.01 9.77   ~ 1211 2
34 AzV 388 * 01 05 39.5306276568 -72 29 26.938329540 12.79 13.86 14.12   14.37 O5V 41 0
35 AzV 429 EB* 01 07 59.8335369624 -72 00 53.979262812 13.40 14.49 14.69   14.91 O7Vz 19 0
36 AzV 439 * 01 08 51.0869885112 -71 49 51.681780912 13.47 14.49 14.68   14.87 O9.5III 15 0
37 AzV 446 * 01 09 25.4274489696 -73 09 29.906782668 13.37 14.38 14.61   14.91 O6.5Vz 21 0
38 AzV 461 * 01 11 25.5705843312 -72 09 48.802253292 13.22 14.40 14.61   14.94 O8V+neb 19 0
39 AzV 468 * 01 12 05.8755103152 -72 40 56.600864328 13.83 14.86 15.14   15.49 O8.5V 14 0
40 NAME SMC 1 Supergiant Shell HII 01 29 -73.3           ~ 18 0
41 SK 190 s*b 01 31 27.9835584432 -73 22 14.221677612   13.37 13.59     O7.5(f)np 16 0
42 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.8965749232 +30 39 36.630403128 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5729 1
43 HD 14947 s*b 02 26 46.9899705528 +58 52 33.118732380 7.83 8.44 7.98     O4.5If 251 0
44 HD 15570 Em* 02 32 49.4207394600 +61 22 42.089384892 8.40 8.80 8.11 7.41 6.86 O4If 301 0
45 HD 15629 Y*O 02 33 20.5873992264 +61 31 18.188762844 8.23 8.85 8.42     O4.5V((fc)) 237 0
46 HD 16691 Em* 02 42 52.0259349000 +56 54 16.463813796 10.187 9.07 8.70     O4If 153 0
47 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 6838 1
48 HD 24431 ** 03 55 38.4221692944 +52 38 28.747965948 6.50 7.11 6.74 6.36 6.10 O9III+B1.5V 163 0
49 * alf Cam s*b 04 54 03.0103983 +66 20 33.636467 3.47 4.34 4.29 4.18 4.18 O9Ia 659 1
50 V* AE Aur Or* 05 16 18.1493304816 +34 18 44.344404000 5.48 6.18 5.96     O9.5V 557 1
51 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 17000 1
52 * lam Ori A Em* 05 35 08.2760807112 +09 56 02.991326316 2.17 3.48 3.47     O8III((f)) 505 0
53 * eps Ori s*b 05 36 12.81335 -01 12 06.9089 0.48 1.51 1.69 1.76 1.93 B0Ia 893 0
54 * mu. Col V* 05 45 59.8950238944 -32 18 23.162261796 3.84 4.90 5.18 5.30 5.57 O9.5V 489 0
55 * kap Ori s*b 05 47 45.3888404 -09 40 10.577707 0.87 1.88 2.06 2.09 2.27 B0.5Ia 567 0
56 HD 42088 * 06 09 39.5728368936 +20 29 15.450599580 6.73 7.58 7.57 8.45   O6V((f))z 243 0
57 HD 46150 Y*O 06 31 55.5205071744 +04 56 34.296516096 6.03 6.86 6.73 6.50 6.41 O5V((f))z 393 0
58 HD 46223 Y*O 06 32 09.3068103600 +04 49 24.705695568 6.73 7.50 7.28 6.95 6.79 O4V((f)) 375 0
59 HD 46202 bC* 06 32 10.4706981304 +04 57 59.764912343 7.60 8.332 8.269 7.98 7.86 O9.2V 280 0
60 NGC 2244 OpC 06 32 10.8 +04 54 50           ~ 620 1
61 HD 46485 Y*O 06 33 50.9566745256 +04 31 31.613196504 7.92 8.60 8.27   8.10 O7V((f))nzvar? 145 0
62 HD 46966 ** 06 36 25.8880460976 +06 04 59.474397540 5.91 6.83 6.87     O8.5IV 205 0
63 HD 48279 ** 06 42 40.54719 +01 42 58.2571 7.26 8.03 7.86     O8V+F2V 148 0
64 * J Pup * 07 53 18.1579197 -48 06 10.563676 3.11 4.10 4.24 4.26 4.38 B0.5Ib 236 0
65 * zet Pup BY* 08 03 35.04754 -40 00 11.3321 0.89 1.98 2.25 2.36 2.58 O4I(n)fp 1146 1
66 HD 66788 * 08 04 08.5403348976 -27 29 08.860666488 8.44 9.92 9.83 9.85   O8/9(Ib) 59 0
67 HD 91969 * 10 35 49.3174367088 -58 13 27.414688080 5.57 6.41 6.43 7.56   B0I+ 119 0
68 HD 93028 SB* 10 43 15.3393101352 -60 12 04.231982304 7.29 8.24 8.30 9.26   O9IV 166 0
69 HD 93146 ** 10 44 00.13416 -60 05 08.7396           O6V+O9.5V 85 0
70 HD 93204 EB* 10 44 32.3390794992 -59 44 31.020804780 7.63 8.52 8.42 8.20 7.92 O5.5V((f)) 186 0
71 HD 93250 * 10 44 45.0275085072 -59 33 54.680974848 6.73 8.12 7.50 8.38   O4III(fc) 310 0
72 HD 94909 s*b 10 56 24.4652481336 -57 33 04.833174060 7.31 7.82 7.34 8.13   B0Ia 72 0
73 HD 105627 * 12 09 44.5819662312 -62 34 54.626272356 7.31 8.21 8.19 9.05   O9III 79 0
74 HD 115455 SB* 13 18 35.3592390638 -62 29 28.407889555 7.40 8.17 7.97 8.81   O8III((f)) 103 1
75 HD 115842 Em* 13 20 48.3393402216 -55 48 02.482824528 5.70 6.39 6.09 5.77 5.52 B0.5Ia/ab 151 0
76 HD 116852 * 13 30 23.5185791544 -78 51 20.547734652 8.29 8.38 8.47     O8.5II-III((f)) 150 1
77 HD 122879 V* 14 06 25.1578487688 -59 42 57.254187024 5.90 6.64 6.50 6.33 6.18 B0Ia 173 1
78 HD 135591 * 15 18 49.1432685384 -60 29 46.795963020 4.46 5.36 5.46 6.91   O8IV((f)) 157 0
79 * zet Oph Be* 16 37 09.5390545 -10 34 01.529471 1.73 2.58 2.56 2.46 2.50 O9.2IVnn 1824 2
80 HD 152234 s*b 16 54 01.8373779952 -41 48 22.987396952 4.92 5.64 5.45     B0.5Ia 192 0
81 HD 326329 Y*? 16 54 14.1033282720 -41 50 08.503512720 8.141 9.183 9.013 9.477 8.460 O9.7V 70 0
82 V* V1297 Sco SB* 16 56 05.2157203176 -40 20 57.576260184 7.87 9.11 9.29 9.29   O7.5Vz 133 0
83 HD 153426 * 17 01 13.0078001616 -38 12 11.886304536 6.79 7.61 7.47 8.49   O8.5III 96 0
84 HD 156292 SB* 17 18 45.8116958160 -42 53 29.928425568 7.13 7.75 7.55 8.42   O9.7III 68 0
85 HD 163758 s*b 17 59 28.3669369416 -36 01 15.589420824 6.46 7.35 7.32 8.38   O6.5Iafp 152 0
86 * 15 Sgr s*b 18 15 12.9063291264 -20 43 41.767600368 4.64 5.42 5.37 5.27 5.19 O9.7Iab 252 0
87 HD 185859 Em* 19 40 28.3246282752 +20 28 37.474738716 6.290 6.890 6.520 6.18 5.92 B3I+ 136 0
88 HD 188209 s*b 19 51 59.0687638680 +47 01 38.419078944 4.61 5.55 5.63 5.54 5.64 O9.5Iab 305 0
89 * 9 Sge s*b 19 52 21.7649260368 +18 40 18.751320984 5.32 6.24 6.23     O7.5Iabf 291 1
90 HD 190429A s*b 20 03 29.395 +36 01 30.53   7.20 7.09     O4If 84 0
91 HD 190864 Em* 20 05 39.8022808800 +35 36 27.991297908 7.18 7.93 7.78     O6.5III(f) 222 0
92 HD 191423 * 20 08 07.1135347944 +42 36 21.962454480 7.43 8.19 8.03     ON9II-IIInn 111 0
93 HD 191978 Pu* 20 10 58.2799378920 +41 21 09.926824572 7.38 8.15 8.03     O8Vz 70 0
94 HD 192660 * 20 14 26.0814038904 +40 19 45.050865708 7.83 8.07 7.56     B0Ib 73 0
95 HD 192639 s*b 20 14 30.4275801672 +37 21 13.816276704 6.83 7.46 7.11     O7.5Iabf 290 0
96 HD 193514 Em* 20 19 08.4971150880 +39 16 24.253036608 7.32 7.83 7.38     O7Ib(f) 186 0
97 HD 193682 Em* 20 20 08.9387110032 +37 49 51.313158876 8.44 8.87 8.42     O4.5IV(f) 86 0
98 HD 195592 s*b 20 30 34.9690901208 +44 18 54.859533372 7.75 7.95 7.08 6.29 5.60 O9.7Ia 209 1
99 * 69 Cyg Pu* 21 25 47.0250895464 +36 40 02.584183260 4.89 5.86 5.94     B0Ib 200 0
100 HD 207198 * 21 44 53.2791389640 +62 27 38.048647248 5.61 6.25 5.94 5.66 5.49 O8.5II 344 0
101 * 19 Cep * 22 05 08.7897533088 +62 16 47.332569936 4.36 5.19 5.11 4.95 4.92 O9Ib 377 0
102 * lam Cep s*b 22 11 30.5765111040 +59 24 52.154264880 4.55 5.29 5.05 4.77 4.62 O6.5I(n)fp 680 1
103 * 26 Cep * 22 27 05.3104700184 +65 07 56.160347196 5.24 5.806 5.515     B0.5Ib 149 0
104 HD 216532 V* 22 52 30.5558211936 +62 26 25.947105900 8.06 8.46 8.0     O8.5V(n) 142 0
105 HD 216898 Pu* 22 55 42.4584233736 +62 18 22.821300252 8.10 8.58 8.04     O9V 152 0
106 HD 218195 ** 23 05 12.93161 +58 14 29.3496 7.91     8.811   O8.5III 75 0
107 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 8158 0

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2023.10.04-18:50:09

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