Astrophys. J., 819, 55 (2016/March-1)
Classical oe stars in the field of the Small Magellanic Cloud.
GOLDEN-MARX J.B., OEY M.S., LAMB J.B., GRAUS A.S. and WHITE A.S.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present 29 ± 1 classical Oe stars from RIOTS4 (the Runaways and Isolated O Type Star Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC), a spatially complete, spectroscopic survey of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) field OB stars. The two earliest are O6e stars, and four are earlier than any Milky Way (MW) Oe stars. We also find ten Ope stars, showing He I infill and/or emission; five appear to be at least as hot as ∼O7.5e stars. The hottest, star 77616, shows He II disk emission, suggesting that even the hottest O stars can form decretion disks, and offers observational support for theoretical predictions that the hottest, fastest rotators can generate He+-ionizing atmospheres. Our data also demonstrate that Ope stars correspond to Oe stars earlier than O7.5e with strong disk emission. We find that in the SMC, Oe stars extend to earlier spectral types than in the MW, and our SMC Oe/O frequency, 0.26 ± 0.04, is much greater than the MW value, 0.03 ± 0.01. These results are consistent with angular momentum transport by stronger winds suppressing decretion disk formation at higher metallicity. In addition, the Oe star frequency in the SMC field is indistinguishable from that for clusters, which is consistent with the similarity between rotation rates in these environments, and contrary to the pattern for MW rotation rates. Thus, our findings strongly support the viscous decretion disk model and confirm that Oe stars are the high-mass extension of the Be phenomenon. Additionally, we find that Fe II emission occurs among Oe stars later than O7.5e with massive disks, and we revise a photometric criterion for identifying Oe stars to J-[3.6]≥ 0.1.
circumstellar matter - Galaxy: stellar content - stars: early-type - stars: emission-line, Be - stars: evolution - stars: rotation
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