2011ApJ...730...18W


Query : 2011ApJ...730...18W

2011ApJ...730...18W - Astrophys. J., 730, 18 (2011/March-3)

A survey of atomic carbon at high redshift.

WALTER F., WEISS A., DOWNES D., DECARLI R. and HENKEL C.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present a survey of atomic carbon (C I) emission in high-redshift (z > 2) submillimeter galaxies and quasar host galaxies. Sensitive observations of the C I (3 P1 -> 3 P0) and C I (3 P2 -> 3 P1) lines have been obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and the IRAM 30 m telescope. A total of 16 C I lines have been targeted in 10 sources, leading to a total of 10 detected lines–this doubles the number of C I observations at high redshift to date. We include previously published C I observations (an additional five detected sources) in our analysis. Our main finding is that the C I properties of the high-redshift galaxies studied here do not differ significantly from what is found in low-redshift systems, including the Milky Way. The C I (3 P2 -> 3 P1)/C I (3 P1 -> 3 P0) and the C I (3 P1 -> 3 P0)/12CO(3-2) line luminosity (L') ratios change little in our sample, with respective ratios of 0.55±0.15 and 0.32±0.13. The C I lines are not an important contributor to cooling of the molecular gas (average L_ C I/LFIR_∼ (7.7 ±4.6)x10–6). We derive a mean carbon excitation temperature of 29.1 ±6.3 K, broadly consistent with dust temperatures derived for high-redshift star-forming systems, but lower than gas temperatures typically derived for starbursts in the local universe. The carbon abundance of X[C I]/X[H2] ∼ (8.4±3.5)x10–5 is of the same order as found in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. This implies that the high-z galaxies studied here are significantly enriched in carbon on galactic scales, even though the look-back times are considerable (the average redshift of the sample sources corresponds to an age of the universe of ∼2 Gyr).

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): cosmology: observations - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: formation - galaxies: starburst - infrared: galaxies

Simbad objects: 27

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Number of rows : 27
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 NGC 253 SyG 00 47 33.134 -25 17 19.68   8.03   6.94 8.1 ~ 3192 2
2 NAME SMM J02399-0136 G 02 39 51.87 -01 35 58.8       21.20   ~ 188 2
3 UGCA 39 GiG 02 41 55.092 +59 36 14.73   16       ~ 341 1
4 IC 342 SBG 03 46 48.514 +68 05 45.98   10.5       ~ 1469 1
5 QSO J0831+5245 QSO 08 31 41.7108197808 +52 45 17.616994560   19.2   14.5 13.9 ~ 527 1
6 QSO B0908+0603 QSO 09 11 27.6052 +05 50 54.281   18.44 18.16     ~ 222 2
7 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5676 6
8 [VV96] J102434.5+470911 Sy1 10 24 34.5 +47 09 11     20.5     ~ 480 0
9 SDSS J114816.64+525150.3 QSO 11 48 16.647 +52 51 50.31   25.73 25.04     ~ 433 0
10 NAME SMM J123549.44+621536.8 AGN 12 35 49.43 +62 15 36.8 24.6 23.9 23.6 23.3 23.1 ~ 58 0
11 [PSD2006] GN20.2a G 12 37 08.840 +62 22 02.37     25.150     ~ 42 0
12 NAME SMM J123711+622212 AGN 12 37 11.92 +62 22 12.1   27.1786 25.185   24.4196 ~ 189 0
13 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4159 4
14 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.91920 -29 51 56.7400 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2453 2
15 BRI B1335-0417 G 13 38 03.4151935680 -04 32 34.981751112   19.4       ~ 96 0
16 NAME SMM J14011+0252 GiC 14 01 04.95 +02 52 24.0           ~ 153 1
17 QSO J1415+1129 QSO 14 15 46.25 +11 29 43.4   17.63 17.23     ~ 627 0
18 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3446 1
19 NAME SMM J16359+6613 G 16 35 55.62 +66 12 59.5           ~ 60 1
20 NAME SMM J163650.43+405734.5 AGN 16 36 50.5 +40 57 34   23.3 23.30   21.83 ~ 84 0
21 NAME SMM J16366+4105 AGN 16 36 58.2 +41 05 24   26.0     24.48 ~ 53 0
22 [LWB2009] MM184222+593828 LeG 18 42 22.32 +59 38 29.6           ~ 17 0
23 EM* MWC 349 ** 20 32 45.499080 +40 39 36.74124   15.88 13.15 12.13   Bep 771 0
24 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2425 2
25 NAME Eyelash LeG 21 35 11.60 -01 02 52.0           ~ 213 0
26 3C 454.3 Bla 22 53 57.7480438728 +16 08 53.561508864   16.57 16.10 15.22   ~ 2727 2
27 QSO J2322+1944 QSO 23 22 07.164 +19 44 22.98     18.29     ~ 72 0

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2023.01.28-11:13:55

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