Chromospheric activity and jitter measurements for 2630 stars on the California Planet Search.
ISAACSON H. and FISCHER D.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present time series measurements of chromospheric activity for more than 2600 main-sequence and subgiant stars on the California Planet Search (CPS) program with spectral types ranging from about F5V to M4V for main-sequence stars and from G0IV to about K5IV for subgiants. The large data set of more than 44,000 spectra allows us to identify an empirical baseline floor for chromospheric activity as a function of color and height above the main sequence. We define ΔS as an excess in emission in the Ca II H and K lines above the baseline activity floor and define radial velocity jitter as a function of ΔS and B - V for main-sequence and subgiant stars. Although the jitter for any individual star can always exceed the baseline level, we find that K dwarfs have the lowest level of jitter. The lack of correlation between observed jitter and chromospheric activity in K dwarfs suggests that the observed jitter is dominated by instrumental or analysis errors and not astrophysical noise sources. Thus, given the long-term precision for the CPS program, radial velocities are not correlated with astrophysical noise for chromospherically quiet K dwarf stars, making these stars particularly well suited for the highest precision Doppler surveys. Chromospherically quiet F and G dwarfs and subgiants exhibit higher baseline levels of astrophysical jitter than K dwarfs. Despite the fact that the rms in Doppler velocities is correlated with the mean chromospheric activity, it is rare to see one-to-one correlations between the individual time series activity and Doppler measurements, diminishing the prospects for correcting activity-induced velocity variations in F and G dwarfs.