2003ApJ...597..323B


Query : 2003ApJ...597..323B

2003ApJ...597..323B - Astrophys. J., 597, 323-346 (2003/November-1)

Really cool stars and the star formation history at the Galactic Center.

BLUM R.D., RAMIREZ S.V., SELLGREN K. and OLSEN K.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present λ/Δλ=550-1200 near-infrared H and K spectra for a magnitude-limited sample of 79 asymptotic giant branch and cool supergiant stars in the central ~5 pc (diameter) of the Galaxy. We use a set of similar spectra obtained for solar neighborhood stars with known Teffand Mbolthat is in the same range as the Galactic center (GC) sample to derive Teffand Mbolfor the GC sample. We then construct the H-R diagram for the GC sample. Using an automated maximum likelihood routine, we derive a coarse star formation history of the GC. We find that (1) roughly 75% of the stars formed in the central few parsecs are older than 5 Gyr; (2) the star formation rate (SFR) is variable over time, with a roughly 4 times higher SFR in the last 100 Myr compared to the average SFR; (3) our model can match dynamical limits on the total mass of stars formed only by limiting the initial mass function to masses above 0.7 M(this could be a signature of mass segregation or of the bias toward massive star formation from the unique star formation conditions in the GC); (4) blue supergiants account for 12% of the total sample observed, and the ratio of red to blue supergiants is roughly 1.5; and (5) models with isochrones with [Fe/H]=0.0 over all ages fit the stars in our H-R diagram better than models with lower [Fe/H] in the oldest age bins, consistent with the finding of Ramírez et al. that stars with ages between 10 Myr and 1 Gyr have solar [Fe/H].

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxy: Center - Stars: AGB and Post-AGB - Stars: Late-Type - Stars: Supergiants

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/597/323): table13.dat refs.dat table2.dat table4.dat table6.dat>

Nomenclature: Table 2: [BSD96] NNN (Nos 148-214) added.

CDS comments: F95 B from Foger Thesis not in Simbad

Simbad objects: 184

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Number of rows : 184
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 * 3 Cet V* 00 04 30.1182732 -10 30 34.284891   6.541 4.924     K3Ib 107 0
2 V* T Cet S* 00 21 46.2731778 -20 03 28.884826   7.32 5.74     M5-6Se 144 0
3 * omi Cet Mi* 02 19 20.79210 -02 58 39.4956   7.63 6.53 5.03   M5-9IIIe+DA 1492 0
4 V* SU Per s*r 02 22 06.8948309496 +56 36 14.893650072 13.86 11.57 9.40     M3-M4Iab 142 0
5 V* R Dor AB* 04 36 45.59127 -62 04 37.7974 7.84 6.98 5.40 2.71 -0.44 M8III:e 330 0
6 * alf Ori s*r 05 55 10.30536 +07 24 25.4304 4.38 2.27 0.42 -1.17 -2.45 M1-M2Ia-Iab 1593 0
7 V* TV Gem s*r 06 11 51.4142883048 +21 52 05.653085916 10.58 8.81 6.56 4.65 3.17 M0-M1.5Iab 166 0
8 * 6 Gem s*r 06 12 19.0988355816 +22 54 30.653107164 11.11 8.63 6.39 4.55 3.07 M1-M2Ia-Iab 174 0
9 BD+06 2063 S* 08 55 37.7339546184 +06 09 04.983072696   10.54 8.96     M3S 31 0
10 V* RS Cnc S* 09 10 38.7978379 +30 57 47.295961 8.65 7.62 5.95 3.06 0.73 M6S 306 0
11 * p02 Leo V* 11 01 49.6762854745 -02 29 04.525646926 8.29 6.37 4.75 3.42 2.46 M0III 98 0
12 V* HL UMa LP* 11 07 52.7875620552 +68 21 58.853487492   9.58 8.09     M3[Swk] 46 0
13 V* V910 Cen LP* 11 35 44.9538524256 -61 34 41.020805424 11.60 9.106 6.859     M0Ib 51 0
14 V* Z UMa LP* 11 56 30.2260881624 +57 52 17.648864652   8.88 6.20 6.40   M5IIIv 117 0
15 V* TU CVn LP* 12 54 56.5204176096 +47 11 48.200441856 8.96 7.39 5.84     M5-III-IIIa 91 0
16 * 40 Com LP* 13 06 22.6020265896 +22 36 58.273099308 8.82 7.22 5.61 3.63 1.84 M5III: 104 0
17 V* R Hya Mi* 13 29 42.7801586466 -23 16 52.751628992 7.26 6.58 4.97 2.27 -0.15 M6-9e 475 0
18 * 83 UMa LP* 13 40 44.2733508 +54 40 53.889137 8.25 6.29 4.66 3.26 2.14 M2III 136 0
19 HD 119667 S* 13 44 45.1396113792 -03 32 00.234827304   10.10 8.42     M0III 41 0
20 V* BY Boo LP? 14 07 55.7560046 +43 51 16.025944 8.52 6.86 5.28 3.43 1.77 M4.5III 170 0
21 V* EK Boo LP? 14 46 05.9426993007 +15 07 54.411177125 8.51 7.20 5.63     M5+IIIab 75 0
22 HD 134943 S* 15 12 04.2654179875 +18 58 33.708698932   7.42 5.89     M4SIII 82 0
23 V* R Ser Mi* 15 50 41.7343255200 +15 08 01.089879792   8.49 7.10     M5-8e 223 0
24 HD 143183 s*r 16 01 36.2228206296 -54 08 35.613436452 11.09 10.50 10.00     M3Ia 45 0
25 * 10 Her LP? 16 11 38.0353946184 +23 29 41.285039064 8.82 7.26 5.70     M4III 64 0
26 HD 147923 S*? 16 21 36.2270581032 +56 52 37.530229116   9.21 7.56     M2[S] 39 0
27 * g Her AB* 16 28 38.5485851 +41 52 54.040593 7.70 6.53 5.01 2.49 0.26 M6-III 371 0
28 * pi. Her V* 17 15 02.8343634 +36 48 32.984340 6.28 4.61 3.18 2.22 1.49 K3II 236 0
29 [BSD96] 148 * 17 45 37.03 -29 00 12.9           ~ 1 0
30 [GMC2001] 3-270 Mi* 17 45 37.238 -29 00 45.66           ~ 7 0
31 [BSD96] 149 * 17 45 37.26 -29 00 41.3           ~ 1 0
32 [BSD96] 150 * 17 45 37.27 -29 00 12.0           ~ 1 0
33 [BSD96] 4 * 17 45 37.37 -29 00 40.9           ~ 2 0
34 [BSD96] 152 * 17 45 37.43 -29 00 05.4           ~ 1 0
35 [MKN2009] 596 LP* 17 45 37.506 -29 00 45.90           ~ 3 0
36 [BSD96] 153 * 17 45 37.52 -29 00 39.1           ~ 1 0
37 [BSD96] 154 * 17 45 37.53 -29 00 47.7           ~ 1 0
38 [BSD96] 156 * 17 45 37.68 -29 00 39.2           ~ 1 0
39 [BSD96] 155 * 17 45 37.68 -29 00 08.0           ~ 1 0
40 [BSD96] 158 * 17 45 37.72 -29 00 43.1           ~ 1 0
41 [BSD96] 5 * 17 45 37.74 -29 00 45.4           ~ 2 0
42 [BSD96] 159 * 17 45 37.78 -29 00 55.4           ~ 1 0
43 [BSD96] 160 * 17 45 37.83 -29 01 09.9           ~ 1 0
44 [BSD96] 7 * 17 45 37.94 -29 00 03.3           ~ 2 0
45 [BSD96] 163 * 17 45 37.98 -29 00 32.7           ~ 1 0
46 [GMC2001] 3-88 Mi* 17 45 38.018 -29 01 02.43           ~ 8 0
47 [BSD96] 164 * 17 45 38.03 -29 01 06.7           ~ 1 0
48 [BSD96] 8 * 17 45 38.16 -29 00 03.9           ~ 2 0
49 [BSD96] 10 * 17 45 38.23 -29 00 10.2           ~ 2 0
50 [BSD96] 165 * 17 45 38.26 -28 59 47.0           ~ 1 0
51 [BSD96] 9 * 17 45 38.266 -29 00 06.61           ~ 2 0
52 [BSD96] 11 * 17 45 38.28 -28 59 40.3           ~ 2 0
53 [BSD96] 13 * 17 45 38.46 -29 00 54.4           ~ 2 0
54 [BSD96] 166 * 17 45 38.48 -29 00 28.5           ~ 1 0
55 [BSD96] 167 * 17 45 38.50 -28 59 53.2           ~ 1 0
56 [BSD96] 14 * 17 45 38.52 -28 59 56.8           ~ 3 0
57 [BSD96] 17 * 17 45 38.7842954856 -29 00 04.151367828           ~ 2 0
58 [BSD96] 18 * 17 45 38.94 -29 00 06.9           ~ 2 0
59 [BSD96] 19 * 17 45 39.086 -29 00 39.46           ~ 2 0
60 [BSD96] 168 * 17 45 39.100 -28 59 42.59           ~ 1 0
61 [BSD96] 169 * 17 45 39.12 -29 00 36.1           ~ 1 0
62 [BSD96] 170 * 17 45 39.206 -29 00 02.88           ~ 1 0
63 [BSD96] 171 * 17 45 39.21 -29 01 05.1           ~ 1 0
64 [BSD96] 172 * 17 45 39.23 -29 00 28.5           ~ 2 0
65 [BSD96] 173 * 17 45 39.25 -29 00 59.3           ~ 1 0
66 [BSD96] 23 * 17 45 39.25 -29 00 15.7           ~ 2 0
67 [BSD96] 27 * 17 45 39.29 -29 00 57.0           ~ 2 0
68 [BSD96] 22 WR* 17 45 39.38 -29 00 33.4           WC8/9 28 0
69 [BSD96] 174 * 17 45 39.389 -29 00 14.89           ~ 1 0
70 GCIRS 11 * 17 45 39.389 -29 00 14.89           M7III 22 0
71 [BSD96] 175 * 17 45 39.49 -29 00 38.1           ~ 1 0
72 GCIRS 30 * 17 45 39.554 -29 00 22.37           ~ 6 0
73 [BSD96] 176 * 17 45 39.597 -28 59 46.87           ~ 1 0
74 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13430 0
75 [BSD96] 40 * 17 45 39.61 -29 00 56.1           ~ 2 0
76 GCIRS 34 WR* 17 45 39.632 -29 00 27.05           ~ 21 0
77 GCIRS 6E WR* 17 45 39.632 -29 00 27.05           Ofpe/WN9 64 0
78 [BSD96] 41 * 17 45 39.64 -29 00 52.5           ~ 2 0
79 [BSD96] 178 * 17 45 39.64 -29 00 52.5           ~ 1 0
80 [BSD96] 177 * 17 45 39.64 -29 00 52.3           ~ 1 0
81 [BSD96] 43 * 17 45 39.643 -29 00 44.56           ~ 2 0
82 [BSD96] 51 * 17 45 39.72 -29 00 29.4           ~ 2 0
83 GCIRS 13E Cl* 17 45 39.73 -29 00 29.7           WN9 111 0
84 GCIRS 2 Em* 17 45 39.7540 -29 00 32.880           ~ 66 0
85 [BSD96] 180 * 17 45 39.77 -29 01 11.9           ~ 2 0
86 GCIRS 2L * 17 45 39.778 -29 00 32.11           ~ 24 0
87 GCIRS 3 * 17 45 39.80 -29 00 23.9           ~ 144 0
88 GCIRS 22 * 17 45 39.828 -29 00 53.90           M5.5III 16 0
89 GCIRS 12S * 17 45 39.86 -29 00 37.4           M4III 15 0
90 GCIRS 12N * 17 45 39.86 -29 00 35.7           M0III 57 0
91 GCIRS 29N WR* 17 45 39.917 -29 00 26.71           WC9 55 0
92 [BSD96] 64 * 17 45 39.954 -28 59 51.52           ~ 2 0
93 GCIRS 7 * 17 45 39.987 -29 00 22.24           M2 361 0
94 [BSD96] 69 * 17 45 40.02 -29 00 56.2           ~ 2 0
95 [BSD96] 70 * 17 45 40.02 -29 00 50.4           ~ 2 0
96 [BSD96] 72 * 17 45 40.05 -29 00 58.5           ~ 7 0
97 GCIRS 14SW * 17 45 40.07 -29 00 37.7           M0III 21 0
98 GCIRS 14NE * 17 45 40.078 -29 00 36.62           M7III 19 0
99 [BSD96] 79 * 17 45 40.099 -28 59 40.20           ~ 3 0
100 [BSD96] 181 * 17 45 40.11 -29 00 43.5           ~ 1 0
101 GCIRS 16SW WR* 17 45 40.1245 -29 00 29.018           Ofpe/WN9 153 0
102 OH 359.954 -0.041 OH* 17 45 40.13280 -28 59 47.7636           O-rich 21 0
103 GCIRS 8 * 17 45 40.14 -28 59 58.7           O 72 0
104 GCIRS 15NE WR* 17 45 40.15 -29 00 16.5           WN8/9 57 0
105 GCIRS 16SE1 WR* 17 45 40.181 -29 00 29.26           WC8/9 44 0
106 GCIRS 21 WR* 17 45 40.222 -29 00 30.85           WC9 99 0
107 GCIRS 16NE WR* 17 45 40.26 -29 00 27.2           Ofpe/WN9 148 0
108 [BSD96] 185 * 17 45 40.295 -29 00 39.19           ~ 1 0
109 [BSD96] 84 * 17 45 40.295 -29 00 39.19           ~ 3 0
110 [BSD96] 186 * 17 45 40.44 -29 00 13.4           ~ 1 0
111 GCIRS 1W Em* 17 45 40.442 -29 00 27.51           Be? 102 0
112 GCIRS 9 LP* 17 45 40.447 -29 00 34.49           M3III 103 0
113 GCIRS 10EL * 17 45 40.60 -29 00 24.0           ~ 4 0
114 OH 359.94 -0.05 OH* 17 45 40.612 -29 00 55.51           O-rich 20 0
115 GCIRS 1SE * 17 45 40.614 -29 00 28.55           ~ 16 0
116 GCIRS 1NE * 17 45 40.626 -29 00 26.55           M3III 20 0
117 [BSD96] 99 * 17 45 40.64 -29 00 47.1           ~ 2 0
118 GCIRS 28 * 17 45 40.80 -29 00 33.7           M6III 38 0
119 [BSD96] 189 * 17 45 40.83 -29 00 37.5           ~ 1 0
120 [BSD96] 103 * 17 45 40.842 -29 00 27.30           M7III 4 0
121 [BSD96] 105 * 17 45 41.013 -29 00 22.61           ~ 2 0
122 [BSD96] 190 * 17 45 41.02 -29 00 50.7           ~ 1 0
123 [BSD96] 107 * 17 45 41.03 -29 00 04.8           ~ 2 0
124 GCIRS 19 * 17 45 41.087 -29 00 47.98           M4Ib 41 0
125 [BSD96] 191 * 17 45 41.10 -29 00 49.8           ~ 1 0
126 [BSD96] 110 * 17 45 41.18 -29 00 50.8           ~ 3 0
127 GCIRS 18 * 17 45 41.223 -29 00 38.91           ~ 12 0
128 [BSD96] 114 * 17 45 41.38 -28 59 37.6           ~ 6 0
129 [BSD96] 112 * 17 45 41.38 -28 59 37.6           M7III 3 0
130 [BSD96] 113 * 17 45 41.38320 -29 00 23.1804           ~ 2 0
131 [BSD96] 192 * 17 45 41.71 -29 01 07.0           ~ 1 0
132 [BSD96] 121 * 17 45 41.753 -29 00 04.70           ~ 2 0
133 [BSD96] 119 * 17 45 41.76 -29 00 47.3           ~ 2 0
134 [BSD96] 120 * 17 45 41.76 -29 00 25.5           ~ 2 0
135 [BSD96] 194 * 17 45 41.92 -29 01 11.9           ~ 1 0
136 [BSD96] 195 * 17 45 41.99 -29 00 25.1           ~ 1 0
137 [BSD96] 197 * 17 45 42.04 -29 00 20.7           ~ 1 0
138 [BSD96] 198 * 17 45 42.07 -29 00 47.1           ~ 1 0
139 [BSD96] 123 * 17 45 42.14 -29 00 18.6           ~ 2 0
140 [BSD96] 199 * 17 45 42.30 -29 01 01.1           ~ 1 0
141 [BSD96] 124 * 17 45 42.400 -28 59 51.03           ~ 7 0
142 [BSD96] 126 * 17 45 42.635 -28 59 53.66           ~ 2 0
143 GCIRS 23 OH* 17 45 42.71 -28 59 57.6           M7+III 26 0
144 [BSD96] 129 * 17 45 42.848 -28 59 42.77           ~ 6 0
145 [BSD96] 201 * 17 45 42.87 -29 00 18.5           ~ 1 0
146 [BSD96] 202 * 17 45 42.88 -29 01 05.1           ~ 1 0
147 [BSD96] 203 * 17 45 42.94 -28 59 35.6           ~ 1 0
148 [MKN2009] 686 LP? 17 45 42.969 -29 00 11.26           ~ 3 0
149 [BSD96] 204 * 17 45 43.07 -29 01 10.0           ~ 1 0
150 [BSD96] 133 * 17 45 43.09 -29 00 51.9           ~ 2 0
151 [BSD96] 205 * 17 45 43.09 -29 00 19.5           ~ 1 0
152 [BSD96] 132 * 17 45 43.09 -29 00 16.7           ~ 2 0
153 OSU C4 * 17 45 43.10 -29 00 26.7           M7III 3 0
154 [BSD96] 206 * 17 45 43.14 -29 00 28.4           ~ 1 0
155 [BSD96] 140 * 17 45 43.504 -29 00 05.18           ~ 6 0
156 [BSD96] 208 * 17 45 43.61 -29 00 59.9           ~ 1 0
157 [BSD96] 209 * 17 45 44.12 -29 00 46.3           ~ 1 0
158 [BSD96] 210 * 17 45 44.16 -29 00 14.9           ~ 1 0
159 [BSD96] 211 * 17 45 44.39 -29 00 59.0           ~ 1 0
160 [BSD96] 212 * 17 45 44.54 -29 00 07.2           ~ 1 0
161 [BSD96] 213 * 17 45 44.74 -29 00 56.8           ~ 1 0
162 [BSD96] 145 * 17 45 44.76 -29 00 00.3           ~ 2 0
163 [BSD96] 214 * 17 45 44.81 -29 00 09.8           ~ 2 0
164 [BSD96] 146 * 17 45 45.00 -29 00 10.7           ~ 2 0
165 [BSD96] 162 * 17 45 45.00 -28 59 36.4           ~ 1 0
166 NAME Quintuplet Cluster OpC 17 46 13.9 -28 49 48           ~ 502 0
167 NSV 23780 V* 17 46 16.58664 -28 49 49.8756           ~ 21 0
168 V* KW Sgr s*r 17 52 00.7269495408 -28 01 20.555654448   11.45 11.00     M3Ia 82 0
169 V* OP Her S* 17 56 48.5269765296 +45 21 03.060662328 9.45 7.93 6.32 4.15 2.25 M6S 148 0
170 HD 163428 V* 17 57 07.4593944816 -23 56 21.282950832 11.10 8.60 6.65 4.95 3.57 K5Ib 55 0
171 HD 167539 S* 18 15 05.3562889008 +16 15 42.441195420   9.53 8.03     M4wkS 24 0
172 V* XY Lyr LP* 18 38 06.4762596528 +39 40 05.975752044 9.09 7.67 6.05 3.84 1.88 M4.5-M5+II 119 0
173 V* V679 Oph S* 18 41 57.1688061216 +06 49 07.203828000   11.4 8.92     S5/5+ 55 0
174 * del02 Lyr LP* 18 54 30.2833502 +36 53 55.013331 7.62 5.97 4.30 2.52 0.89 M4II 230 0
175 HD 189581 S* 20 00 38.4057760224 +01 21 39.754195740   10.19 8.45     S4*2 28 0
176 V* BC Cyg s*r 20 21 38.5478957040 +37 31 58.925226936   14.61 11.30     M3.5Ia 162 0
177 V* KY Cyg s*r 20 25 58.0435428576 +38 21 07.671813480   13.62 13.50     M3Ia 96 0
178 * mu. Cep s*r 21 43 30.4610574 +58 46 48.160181 8.85 6.43 4.08 1.98 0.22 M2-Ia 651 1
179 V* EP Aqr AB* 21 46 31.8494911920 -02 12 45.928582560   7.93 6.78     M7-III: 233 0
180 * 19 PsA V* 22 42 22.0870258608 -29 21 39.773254860   7.670 6.168     M3III 27 0
181 V* HR Peg S* 22 54 35.6272159944 +16 56 30.606025560 9.970 8.160 6.360     S4+/1+ 129 0
182 V* V424 Lac LP* 22 56 25.9983901008 +49 44 00.758688324 8.66 6.71 4.94 3.59 2.54 K5Ib 151 0
183 V* DL Gru LP* 23 10 09.7354013520 -40 35 29.567235300   7.53 5.97     M4III 27 0
184 V* R Aqr Sy* 23 43 49.4634303216 -15 17 04.176349872   8.823 7.683 9.37   M6.5-8.5e 770 0

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2023.01.29-16:26:36

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