Astrophys. J., 939, 120 (2022/November-2)
Isolated Massive Star Formation in G28.20-0.05.
LAW C.-Y., TAN J.C., GORAI P., ZHANG Y., FEDRIANI R., TAFOYA D., TANAKA K.E.I., COSENTINO G., YANG Y.-L., MARDONES D., BELTRAN M.T. and GARAY G.
Abstract (from CDS):
We report high-resolution 1.3 mm continuum and molecular line observations of the massive protostar G28.20-0.05 with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The continuum image reveals a ring-like structure with 2000 au radius, similar to morphology seen in archival 1.3 cm Very Large Array observations. Based on its spectral index and associated H30α emission, this structure mainly traces ionized gas. However, there is evidence for ∼30 M⊙ of dusty gas near the main millimeter continuum peak on one side of the ring, as well as in adjacent regions within 3000 au. A virial analysis on scales of ∼2000 au from hot core line emission yields a dynamical mass of ∼80 M⊙. A strong velocity gradient in the H30α emission is evidence for a rotating, ionized disk wind, which drives a larger-scale molecular outflow. An infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis indicates a current protostellar mass of m* ∼ 40 M⊙ forming from a core with initial mass Mc ∼ 300 M⊙ in a clump with mass surface density of Σcl ∼ 0.8 g cm–2. Thus the SED and other properties of the system can be understood in the context of core accretion models. A structure-finding analysis on the larger-scale continuum image indicates G28.20-0.05 is forming in a relatively isolated environment, with no other concentrated sources, i.e., protostellar cores, above ∼1 M⊙ found from ∼0.1 to 0.4 pc around the source. This implies that a massive star can form in relative isolation, and the dearth of other protostellar companions within the ∼1 pc environs is a strong constraint on massive star formation theories that predict the presence of a surrounding protocluster.
© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
Massive stars - Interstellar medium - Star formation - Star forming regions
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