2022A&A...658A..17S


Query : 2022A&A...658A..17S

2022A&A...658A..17S - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 658A, 17-17 (2022/2-1)

The ionised and molecular mass of post-common-envelope planetary nebulae. The missing mass problem.

SANTANDER-GARCIA M., JONES D., ALCOLEA J., BUJARRABAL V. and WESSON R.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. Most planetary nebulae (PNe) show beautiful, axisymmetric morphologies despite their progenitor stars being essentially spherical. Close binarity is widely invoked to help eject an axisymmetric nebula, after a brief phase of engulfment of the secondary within the envelope of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, known as the common envelope (CE). The evolution of the AGB would thus be interrupted abruptly, with its still quite massive envelope being rapidly ejected to form the PN, which a priori would be more massive than the PN coming from a single version of the same star.
Aims. We aim to test this hypothesis by investigating the ionised and molecular masses of a sample consisting of 21 post-CE PNe, roughly one-fifth of the known total population of these objects, and to compare them to a large sample of 'regular' (i.e. not known to arise from close-binary systems) PNe.
Methods. We gathered data on the ionised and molecular content of our sample from the literature, and carried out molecular observations of several previously unobserved objects. We derived the ionised and molecular masses of the sample by means of a systematic approach, using tabulated, dereddened Hβ fluxes to find the ionised mass, and 12CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations to estimate the molecular mass.
Results. There is a general lack of molecular content in post-CE PNe. Our observations only reveal molecule-rich gas around NGC 6778, which is distributed into a low-mass, expanding equatorial ring lying beyond the ionised broken ring previously observed in this nebula. The only two other objects showing molecular content (from the literature) are NGC 2346 and NGC 7293. Once we derive the ionised and molecular masses, we find that post-CE PNe arising from single-degenerate (SD) systems are just as massive, on average, as members of the 'regular' PNe sample, whereas post-CE PNe arising from double-degenerate systems are considerably more massive, and show substantially higher linear momentum and kinetic energy than SD systems and 'regular' PNe. Reconstruction of the CE of four objects, for which a wealth of data on the nebulae and complete orbital parameters are available, further suggests that the mass of SD nebulae actually amounts to a very small fraction of the envelope of their progenitor stars. This leads to the uncomfortable questions of where the rest of the envelope is and why we cannot detect it in the stars' vicinity, raising serious doubts about our understanding of these intriguing objects.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2022

Journal keyword(s): planetary nebulae: general - planetary nebulae: individual: NGC 6778 - circumstellar matter - binaries: close - stars: mass-loss - stars: winds, outflows

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/658/A17): table4.dat tablea1.dat tableb1.dat refs.dat

Status at CDS : Tables of objects will be appraised for possible ingestion in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 120

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Number of rows : 120
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 NGC 40 PN 00 13 01.0170097248 +72 31 19.033338720   11.63 11.46     [WC8] 604 2
2 PN Vy 1-1 PN 00 18 42.1732297536 +53 52 19.778622996           [WC] 127 0
3 NGC 246 PN 00 47 03.3420341616 -11 52 18.971126076 10.15 11.52 11.76 12.18   PG1159 468 0
4 IC 1747 PN 01 57 35.6899203048 +63 19 18.447328776   15.8 15.4     [WC4] 259 2
5 IC 289 PN 03 10 19.3015329024 +61 19 00.913523412   16.8       ~ 153 1
6 PN M 1-4 PN 03 41 43.4191369752 +52 17 00.267451836   15.86 14.27 15.26   ~ 117 1
7 NGC 1501 PN 04 06 59.3920909320 +60 55 14.278542024   15.17 13.0     [WO4] 290 1
8 NGC 1535 PN 04 14 15.7689913368 -12 44 21.932484324   12.01 12.82     sdO3: 508 0
9 PN M 4-18 PN 04 25 50.8356162744 +60 07 12.780446700   14.22 13.96     [WC11] 175 0
10 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16411 1
11 IC 418 PN 05 27 28.2059533560 -12 41 50.282287764   9.405 9.010 10.118   O7fp 1021 2
12 PN H 3-75 PN 05 40 44.9723036352 +12 21 22.518118044   14.8       ~ 58 0
13 NGC 2022 PN 05 42 06.1904253312 +09 05 10.585995576   14.9 14.2     [WC] 356 0
14 IC 2149 PN 05 56 23.9011721904 +46 06 17.204826816   11.21 11.35     O7.5 425 0
15 PN K 3-72 PN 06 23 54.880 +05 30 12.88           ~ 36 0
16 PN VV 28 PN 06 25 57.2710426104 +17 47 27.136548168     12.5     [WC] 288 0
17 PN M 1-6 PN 06 35 45.1241072736 -00 05 37.396958568     15.84     O6-9I 114 1
18 IRAS 06518-1041 PN 06 54 13.4357342304 -10 45 38.277195336           [WC7/8] 33 1
19 PN PB 1 PN 07 02 46.809 -13 42 33.74           ~ 47 0
20 NGC 2346 PN 07 09 22.5215800440 -00 48 23.610997332   11.76 11.58     A5V 565 0
21 PN M 1-11 PN 07 11 16.6948815960 -19 51 02.898476424     13.5     WC10-11 144 0
22 PN M 1-12 PN 07 19 21.4685188440 -21 43 55.402228344     14.08     WC10-11 115 0
23 NGC 2371 PN 07 25 34.6883929008 +29 29 26.430252072   14.48 13.5     Oe 364 0
24 PN M 3-3 PN 07 26 34.228 -05 21 52.16           ~ 78 0
25 PN A66 21 PN 07 29 02.7096654192 +13 14 48.587555184   15.67 15.99     DOZ 187 0
26 NGC 2392 PN 07 29 10.7671398096 +20 54 42.474888072     9.68     O6f 713 1
27 NGC 2438 PN 07 41 50.5194253896 -14 44 07.470144744           ~ 281 3
28 NGC 2440 PN 07 41 54.91 -18 12 29.7   18.9       ~ 644 2
29 NGC 2452 PN 07 47 26.2649505144 -27 20 06.819982188   17.9 12.20     [WO1] 253 0
30 PN A66 24 PN 07 51 37.5535577256 +03 00 21.156882408   16.97 17.18     ~ 102 0
31 PN ARO 121 PN 07 57 51.6169237320 +53 25 16.950484848   16.775 17.128 17.288 17.501 DQ 158 1
32 PN A66 30 PN 08 46 53.4639874872 +17 52 46.369394580   14.23 14.30 13.47   [WC5] 403 0
33 NGC 2818A PN 09 16 01.4901525600 -36 37 37.516376856           ~ 227 1
34 NGC 2899 PN 09 27 03.02 -56 06 21.1     12.40     G0 149 0
35 CD-56 2932 PN 09 43 25.6321182358 -57 16 55.530993175   11.851 11.171 11.206   A2II 121 0
36 WRAY 16-64 PN 10 03 49.2048192096 -60 43 48.272737800     13.70     ~ 48 0
37 NGC 3132 PN 10 07 01.7656422504 -40 26 11.130553032   10.14 10.01     A2V 383 1
38 NGC 3242 PN 10 24 46.1335521792 -18 38 32.296857792   11.83 12.15     ~ 814 1
39 M 97 PN 11 14 47.7122947800 +55 01 08.482832076   15.414 15.777 15.960 16.194 ~ 338 1
40 NGC 3699 PN 11 27 57.70 -59 57 28.0   10 13.00     ~ 91 1
41 PN Fg 1 PN 11 28 36.2243510088 -52 56 04.118494344   13.1 12.20     ~ 168 0
42 WRAY 16-94 PN 11 31 45.4605161808 -65 58 14.143658844     14.30     ~ 63 0
43 NGC 3918 PN 11 50 17.7709504944 -57 10 57.017302428   10.0 8.5     ~ 375 0
44 NGC 4361 PN 12 24 30.7510527528 -18 47 05.567336304   12.8 13.2     [WC] 389 1
45 IC 3568 PN 12 33 06.8549162136 +82 33 50.202643608   11.809 10.730 12.651   ~ 397 0
46 NGC 5189 PN 13 33 32.8780414224 -65 58 27.041428272   14.1 14.5   14.35 [WO1] 308 2
47 PN MyCn 18 PN 13 39 35.0596178496 -67 22 51.750497136   13.30 12.54 13.19 12.61 ~ 280 1
48 NGC 5315 PN 13 53 56.9726795664 -66 30 50.859483264   14.58 14.40     [WO4] 300 0
49 IC 972 PN 14 04 25.9204685952 -17 13 40.579932360         16.42 ~ 81 0
50 IC 4406 PN 14 22 26.1440976888 -44 09 02.185112988   11.5 10.90     ~ 277 0
51 WRAY 15-1269 PN 14 59 53.4819371136 -54 18 07.521138792 12.12 12.17 11.64 11.63   [WC11] 238 0
52 PN Mz 1 PN 15 34 16.6410983544 -59 09 08.105422716   12.8 13.10     ~ 119 0
53 HD 138403 PN 15 37 11.2073139768 -71 54 52.887104280   10.24 10.47 11.01   O8(f)ep 260 0
54 NGC 6058 PN 16 04 26.5481632728 +40 40 58.949391036     13.0     sd 195 0
55 IC 4593 PN 16 11 44.5479462840 +12 04 17.031388584   10.91 10.84     O7fp 448 0
56 NGC 6072 PN 16 12 58.3635385680 -36 13 47.395106184     12.10     ~ 169 0
57 IC 4599 PN 16 19 23.2088078304 -42 15 36.708913692     12.70     ~ 81 0
58 NGC 6210 PN 16 44 29.5191019368 +23 47 59.421958296   12.3 11.7     Of/[WR] 582 0
59 PN HaTr 4 PN 16 45 00.042 -51 12 20.36           ~ 52 0
60 CPD-56 8032 PN 17 09 00.9291677740 -56 54 47.868280757 11.24 11.48 11.04 11.067   [WC10] 258 0
61 NGC 6302 PN 17 13 44.339 -37 06 10.95   7.1 10.10     ~ 778 1
62 NGC 6309 PN 17 14 04.3074600360 -12 54 37.893271860   11.6       O(He) 306 1
63 NGC 6326 PN 17 20 46.252 -51 45 15.17   12.83 11.53 16.00 15.16 O(H)5-8((fc)) 144 0
64 PN A66 41 PN 17 29 02.0258857104 -15 13 04.482114960   16.06 15.95     sdO 136 1
65 NGC 6369 PN 17 29 20.4566510904 -23 45 34.771819248   16.6 12.00     [WC4] 313 0
66 PN Lo 16 PN 17 35 41.8805265456 -40 11 26.481440724     16.14     O(H)3-4Vz((fc)) 32 0
67 PN H 2-20 PN 17 45 39.81 -25 40 00.3     17.00     ~ 73 1
68 PN M 1-32 PN 17 56 20.11 -16 29 04.6   18.3 17.0     [WC4/5] 100 1
69 NGC 6543 PN 17 58 33.4039587288 +66 37 58.750734000   11.09 11.28     [WC] 1149 1
70 PN Sp 3 PN 18 07 15.8007531408 -51 01 10.214393376   12.80 12.89 13.46 13.22 O 76 0
71 NGC 6563 PN 18 12 02.50 -33 52 07.0   11.7 10     ~ 176 1
72 NGC 6572 PN 18 12 06.3181909152 +06 51 13.027935240   9.3 10.8     [WC] 747 0
73 PN SwSt 1 PN 18 16 12.2834104368 -30 52 07.906578996   12.1 11.10     [WC9/10] 286 0
74 PN Cn 3-1 PN 18 17 34.1015035728 +10 09 03.304908396   12.93 12.49 12.35   07Ib(f) 216 0
75 NGC 6629 PN 18 25 42.4541775576 -23 12 10.551587436   11.90 9.9     [WC5/6] 263 0
76 PN M 1-46 PN 18 27 56.3175434256 -15 32 54.434037264     12.83     O(H)7I(fc) 123 0
77 NGC 6644 PN 18 32 34.70 -25 07 44.2     9.6     ~ 190 0
78 PN M 3-28 PN 18 32 41.288 -10 05 50.03   15.6       ~ 88 0
79 IC 4732 PN 18 33 54.6340681272 -22 38 41.382665232   12.5       ~ 145 0
80 PN Hu 2-1 PN 18 49 47.5610183328 +20 50 39.396894756   12.369 11.126 12.30   ~ 274 0
81 M 57 PN 18 53 35.0967659112 +33 01 44.883287544   15.405 15.769 15.901 16.062 DA(O?) 817 2
82 PN M 1-65 PN 18 56 33.6348962736 +10 52 09.588530604     14.89     ~ 66 0
83 SH 2-71 PN 19 02 00.2849823576 +02 09 10.977231456   14.69 14.00 13.66   A7V-F0V 128 0
84 NGC 6741 PN 19 02 37.10 -00 26 56.7     9.6     ~ 345 0
85 PN M 4-12 PN 19 13 05.239 +15 46 39.80           ~ 87 0
86 NGC 6772 PN 19 14 36.373 -02 42 25.04   17.01       ~ 147 0
87 NAME Ethos 1 PN 19 16 31.4893892688 +36 09 47.679159096           ~ 29 0
88 PN A66 57 PN 19 17 05.6559840120 +25 37 32.892407184   17.903 17.734 17.451 17.210 ~ 34 0
89 NGC 6778 PN 19 18 25.0 -01 35 47     14.8     ~ 254 0
90 NGC 6781 PN 19 18 28.085 +06 32 19.29     11.8     ~ 258 0
91 PN Vy 2-2 PN 19 24 22.2390166933 +09 53 56.259102426   14.02 12.65 13.38   ~ 257 0
92 Hen 1-2 PN 19 26 37.7448050904 +21 09 26.941487868     16.7     O9-B0I 45 0
93 PN K 3-35 PN 19 27 43.9749997920 +21 30 02.907990216           ~ 142 0
94 HD 184738 PN 19 34 45.2337620448 +30 30 58.950651240   10.41 10.44     [WC9] 937 0
95 PN M 1-71 PN 19 36 26.9207484077 +19 42 24.018831075           [WC] 84 1
96 PN Me 1-1 PN 19 39 09.8202196560 +15 56 48.274743516           ~ 125 0
97 PN M 1-73 PN 19 41 09.2937490896 +14 56 58.980006096           O3.5If 77 1
98 PN A66 63 PN 19 42 10.2896588688 +17 05 14.458509132           sdO+G: 209 1
99 IRAS 19417+1701 PN 19 43 59.5114618200 +17 09 00.963778248   11.2   10.6   ~ 57 0
100 NGC 6826 PN 19 44 48.1500225888 +50 31 30.249034932   10.21 9.6     O6fp 713 0
101 V* V458 Vul No* 19 54 24.6304743344 +20 52 52.134341488   17.76 15.96 17.9   ~ 119 0
102 M 27 PN 19 59 36.3631850088 +22 43 16.312059552   13.749 14.089 14.247 14.405 DAO.6 581 0
103 NGC 6884 PN 20 10 23.6424784416 +46 27 39.631794408   11.9 10.9     ~ 312 1
104 Hen 2-459 PN 20 13 57.8909464128 +29 33 55.874044764   14.10 12.67     [WC9] 100 0
105 NGC 6894 PN 20 16 23.965 +30 33 53.17           ~ 198 0
106 PN M 3-35 PN 20 21 03.7631843136 +32 29 24.005231700   15.56 15.30     ~ 93 0
107 NGC 7008 PN 21 00 32.817600 +54 32 35.37600       13.21   ~ 238 1
108 NGC 7009 PN 21 04 10.8155187648 -11 21 48.580157556   12.48 12.07     ~ 985 1
109 NGC 7026 PN 21 06 18.5723414928 +47 51 06.774735780   15.33 15.1     [WC3] 413 1
110 NGC 7027 PN 21 07 01.571952 +42 14 10.47120   10.358 8.831 10.157   ~ 2413 1
111 NGC 7048 PN 21 14 15.25 +46 17 16.1           ~ 129 1
112 NAME PN Ou 5 PN 21 14 20.03 +43 41 36.0           ~ 21 0
113 [D75b] Em* 21-021 PN 21 29 58.4711786760 +51 04 00.323924520   15.66 14.20 13.89   O7(f)/[WC11] 236 0
114 NGC 7293 PN 22 29 38.5454047152 -20 50 13.747242408 11.894 13.158 13.524 13.689 13.898 DAO.5 929 0
115 PN M 2-53 PN 22 32 17.720 +56 10 26.12           ~ 69 0
116 NGC 7354 PN 22 40 19.8733664208 +61 17 08.746685772           ~ 273 1
117 PN Vy 2-3 PN 23 22 57.9043238616 +46 53 58.073396856           O(H)3-4I 85 0
118 NGC 7662 PN 23 25 53.6 +42 32 06   9.4 12     ~ 921 0
119 PN M 2-55 PN 23 31 52.708 +70 22 10.11           ~ 81 0
120 PN Jn 1 PN 23 35 53.3214838680 +30 28 06.336745212   15.52 15.62     DOZ 104 0

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2022.12.07-07:27:02

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