2021MNRAS.503.2791S


Query : 2021MNRAS.503.2791S

2021MNRAS.503.2791S - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 503, 2791-2803 (2021/May-2)

The probability distribution of 3D shapes of galaxy clusters from 2D X-ray images.

SHANKAR S. and KHATRI R.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present a new method to determine the probability distribution of the 3D shapes of galaxy clusters from the 2D images using stereology. In contrast to the conventional approach of combining different data sets (such as X-rays, Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and lensing) to fit a 3D model of a galaxy cluster for each cluster, our method requires only a single data set, such as X-ray observations or Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect observations, consisting of sufficiently large number of clusters. Instead of reconstructing the 3D shape of an individual object, we recover the probability distribution function (PDF) of the 3D shapes of the observed galaxy clusters. The shape PDF is the relevant statistical quantity, which can be compared with the theory and used to test the cosmological models. We apply this method to publicly available Chandra X-ray data of 89 well-resolved galaxy clusters. Assuming ellipsoidal shapes, we find that our sample of galaxy clusters is a mixture of prolate and oblate shapes, with a preference for oblateness with the most probable ratio of principle axes 1.4 : 1.3 : 1. The ellipsoidal assumption is not essential to our approach and our method is directly applicable to non-ellipsoidal shapes. Our method is insensitive to the radial density and temperature profiles of the cluster. Our method is sensitive to the changes in shape of the X-ray emitting gas from inner to outer regions and we find evidence for variation in the 3D shape of the X-ray emitting gas with distance from the centre.

Abstract Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society

Journal keyword(s): methods: data analysis - galaxies: clusters: general - cosmology: observations - dark matter - X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Simbad objects: 91

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Number of rows : 91
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 ACO 2717 ClG 00 03 12.9 -35 56 13           ~ 129 0
2 ClG J0011-2850 ClG 00 11 21.623 -28 51 14.44           ~ 7 0
3 ACO 13 ClG 00 13 38.5 -19 30 19           ~ 98 1
4 ACO 68 ClG 00 37 06.2 +09 09 33           ~ 172 0
5 ACO 193 ClG 01 25 07.3 +08 41 36           ~ 179 0
6 ACO 209 ClG 01 31 57.5 -13 34 35           ~ 274 0
7 ACO 383 ClG 02 48 06.9 -03 29 32           ~ 330 0
8 2MAXI J0254+416 ClG 02 54 32.2 +41 35 10           ~ 304 1
9 ClG J0302-0423 ClG 03 02 21.3 -04 23 29           ~ 14 0
10 ACO 3102 ClG 03 14 14 -44 37.9           ~ 4 0
11 ACO 3112 ClG 03 17 52.4 -44 14 35           ~ 298 1
12 ClG J0318-0302 ClG 03 18 17.3 -03 01 21           ~ 22 0
13 ClG J0329-0212 ClG 03 29 41.6 -02 11 47           ~ 124 0
14 ACO S 540 ClG 05 40 06.2 -40 50 29           ~ 49 0
15 ACT-CL J0616-5227 ClG 06 16 34.20 -52 27 13.3           ~ 22 0
16 ACO 586 ClG 07 32 20.3 +31 37 58           ~ 165 0
17 ZwCl 0806+2822 ClG 08 09 41.0 +28 11 58           ~ 22 0
18 ICRF J083454.9+553421 Sy2 08 34 54.9022011432 +55 34 21.085082256   20.75 19.45 17.180   ~ 268 2
19 ACO 697 ClG 08 42 57.6 +36 21 45           ~ 234 0
20 ACO 744 ClG 09 07 20.0 +16 39 25           ~ 76 0
21 ACO 773 ClG 09 17 51.3 +51 43 20           ~ 275 0
22 ACO 795 ClG 09 24 02.5 +14 10 05           ~ 89 0
23 ACO 801 ClG 09 28 04.5 +20 31 45           ~ 35 0
24 ClG J0956+4107 ClG 09 56 03.4 +41 07 14           ~ 41 0
25 ACO 907 ClG 09 58 21.84 -11 03 47.5           ~ 122 0
26 ACO 963 ClG 10 17 09.6 +39 01 00           ~ 372 0
27 ACO 1068 ClG 10 40 47.1 +39 57 19           ~ 194 0
28 ACO 1201 ClG 11 12 54.4 +13 26 08           ~ 95 1
29 ACO 1204 ClG 11 13 32.2 +17 35 40           ~ 86 0
30 ClG J1120+4318 ClG 11 20 07.6 +43 18 07           ~ 57 0
31 ACO 1361 ClG 11 43 39.6 +46 21 20           ~ 87 0
32 ACO 1413 ClG 11 55 18.0 +23 24 19           ~ 401 0
33 ACO 1423 ClG 11 57 47.34 +33 42 43.5           ~ 152 0
34 ACO 1446 ClG 12 02 03.8 +58 02 08           ~ 92 1
35 ACO 1489 ClG 12 12 19.2 +27 33 14           ~ 30 0
36 ACO 1576 ClG 12 36 59.5 +63 11 18           ~ 94 0
37 NAME A3528-S ClG 12 54 40.6 -29 13 44           ~ 54 0
38 ACO 3532 ClG 12 57 19.2 -30 22 13           ~ 162 2
39 ACO 1650 ClG 12 58 36.76 -01 43 34.2           ~ 280 0
40 ACO 1664 ClG 13 03 42.4 -24 14 44           ~ 118 0
41 ACO 1689 ClG 13 11 29.5 -01 20 28           ~ 1074 0
42 ACO 3558 ClG 13 27 54.8 -31 29 32           ~ 422 2
43 ACO 1763 ClG 13 35 20.1 +41 00 04           ~ 284 0
44 ClG J1347-1145 ClG 13 47 33.5 -11 45 42           ~ 510 0
45 ACO 1804 ClG 13 49 00.2 +49 18 33           ~ 13 0
46 ACO 1795 ClG 13 49 00.5 +26 35 07           ~ 1205 0
47 ACO 1835 ClG 14 01 02.07 +02 52 43.2           ~ 657 1
48 ACO 3581 ClG 14 07 29.8 -27 01 04           ~ 175 3
49 ClG J1423+2404 ClG 14 23 47.7 +24 04 40           ~ 191 0
50 ACO 1914 ClG 14 26 01.3 +37 49 36           ~ 289 0
51 ACO 1930 ClG 14 32 42.6 +31 34 07           ~ 53 0
52 ACO 2009 ClG 15 00 15.2 +21 22 09           ~ 87 0
53 ACO 2029 ClG 15 10 58.7 +05 45 42           ~ 896 0
54 ACO 2111 ClG 15 39 40.9 +34 25 04           ~ 165 0
55 ACO 2124 ClG 15 44 59.3 +36 03 40           ~ 198 0
56 ACO 2146 ClG 15 56 04.7 +66 20 24           ~ 160 0
57 ACO 2142 ClG 15 58 20.00 +27 14 00.3           ~ 718 0
58 BAX 241.2375+23.9206 ClG 16 04 57.0 +23 55 14     14.38     ~ 126 0
59 ACO 2151 ClG 16 05 15.0 +17 44 55           ~ 570 3
60 ACO 2163 ClG 16 15 34.1 -06 07 26           ~ 543 0
61 ACO 2187 ClG 16 24 13.9 +41 14 37           ~ 37 0
62 ACO 2199 ClG 16 28 37.0 +39 31 28           ~ 1132 1
63 ACO 2204 ClG 16 32 45.7 +05 34 43           ~ 415 0
64 ACO 2218 ClG 16 35 54.0 +66 13 00           ~ 790 1
65 ACO 2219 ClG 16 40 22.1 +46 42 20           ~ 337 0
66 NAME Hercules A rG 16 51 07.9886687784 +04 59 35.547131472     18.25     ~ 448 1
67 ACO 2244 ClG 17 02 34.01 +34 04 41.1           ~ 256 0
68 ACO 2259 ClG 17 20 09.2 +27 40 09           ~ 105 0
69 ACO 2261 ClG 17 22 28.3 +32 09 13           ~ 316 0
70 ACO 2294 ClG 17 24 10.1 +85 53 09           ~ 58 0
71 ACO 2276 ClG 17 35 05.4 +64 06 05           ~ 20 0
72 NAME Cyg A Sy2 19 59 28.35645829 +40 44 02.0966496   16.22 15.10     ~ 2256 2
73 ACO 2390 ClG 21 53 34.6 +17 40 11           ~ 653 2
74 ACO 2409 ClG 22 00 52.7 +20 58 27           ~ 69 0
75 ACO 3827 ClG 22 01 49.1 -59 57 15           ~ 144 0
76 ACO 2426 ClG 22 14 27.3 -10 22 05           ~ 71 0
77 ACO 2445 ClG 22 26 55.8 +25 50 09           ~ 22 0
78 NAME 2PIGG J2227.0-3041 GrG 22 27 54.560 -30 34 34.84           ~ 6 0
79 ACO 2485 ClG 22 48 33 -16 07.1           ~ 46 0
80 ACO S 1063 ClG 22 48 54.3 -44 31 07           ~ 265 0
81 ACO 3921 ClG 22 49 38.6 -64 23 15           ~ 141 1
82 ACO 2537 ClG 23 08 22.3 -02 11 29           ~ 123 0
83 ACO 2552 ClG 23 11 33.1 +03 38 37           ~ 64 0
84 ACO 2550 ClG 23 11 33.5 -21 44 41           ~ 29 0
85 ACO 2556 ClG 23 13 03.3 -21 37 40           ~ 77 0
86 ACO S 1101 ClG 23 13 58.5 -42 43 39           ~ 243 1
87 ACO 2589 ClG 23 24 00.5 +16 49 29           ~ 305 1
88 ACO 2597 ClG 23 25 19.70 -12 07 27.7           ~ 519 0
89 ACO 2626 ClG 23 36 31.0 +21 09 36           ~ 228 0
90 ACO 2631 ClG 23 37 40.7 +00 16 35           ~ 150 0
91 ACO 4059 ClG 23 56 40.7 -34 40 18           ~ 368 1

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2022.09.26-09:04:41

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