Radius and mass distribution of ultra-short-period planets.
UZSOY A.S.M., ROGERS L.A. and PRICE E.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
Ultra-short-period (USP) planets are an enigmatic subset of exoplanets defined by having orbital periods <1 day. It is still not understood how USP planets form, or to what degree they differ from planets with longer orbital periods. Most USP planets have radii <2 R⊕, while planets that orbit further from their star extend to Jupiter size (>10 R⊕). Several theories attempt to explain the formation and composition of USP planets: they could be remnant cores of larger gas giants that lost their atmospheres due to photoevaporation or Roche-lobe overflow, or they could have developed through mass accretion in the innermost part of the protoplanetary disk. The radius and mass distribution of USP planets could provide important clues to distinguish between potential formation mechanisms. In this study, we first verify and update the Kepler catalog of USP planet host star properties, incorporating new data collected by the Gaia mission where applicable. We then use the transit depths measured by Kepler to derive a radius distribution and present occurrence rates for USP planets. Using spherical and tidally distorted planet models, we then derive a mass distribution for USP planets. Comparisons between the updated USP planet mass distribution and simulated planetary systems offer further insights into the formation and evolutionary processes shaping USP planet populations.