Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 491, 5287-5297 (2020/February-1)
Testing exoplanet evaporation with multitransiting systems.
OWEN J.E. and CAMPOS ESTRADA B.
Abstract (from CDS):
The photoevaporation model is one of the leading explanations for the evolution of small, close-in planets and the origin of the radius-valley. However, without planet mass measurements, it is challenging to test the photoevaporation scenario. Even if masses are available for individual planets, the host star's unknown EUV/X-ray history makes it difficult to assess the role of photoevaporation. We show that systems with multiple transiting planets are the best in which to rigorously test the photoevaporation model. By scaling one planet to another in a multitransiting system, the host star's uncertain EUV/X-ray history can be negated. By focusing on systems that contain planets that straddle the radius-valley, one can estimate the minimum masses of planets above the radius-valley (and thus are assumed to have retained a voluminous hydrogen/helium envelope). This minimum mass is estimated by assuming that the planet below the radius-valley entirely lost its initial hydrogen/helium envelope, then calculating how massive any planet above the valley needs to be to retain its envelope. We apply this method to 104 planets above the radius gap in 73 systems for which precise enough radii measurements are available. We find excellent agreement with the photoevaporation model. Only two planets (Kepler-100c and 142c) appear to be inconsistent, suggesting they had a different formation history or followed a different evolutionary pathway to the bulk of the population. Our method can be used to identify TESS systems that warrant radial-velocity follow-up to further test the photoevaporation model.
© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
planets and satellites: atmospheres - planets and satellites: interiors - planets and satellites: physical evolution - planet-star interactions
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/MNRAS/491/5287): table2.dat>
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