2019MNRAS.486.3180K


Query : 2019MNRAS.486.3180K

2019MNRAS.486.3180K - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 486, 3180-3202 (2019/July-1)

The formation and assembly history of the Milky Way revealed by its globular cluster population.

KRUIJSSEN J.M.D., PFEFFER J.L., REINA-CAMPOS M., CRAIN R.A. and BASTIAN N.

Abstract (from CDS):

We use the age-metallicity distribution of 96 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) to infer the formation and assembly history of the Milky Way (MW), culminating in the reconstruction of its merger tree. Based on a quantitative comparison of the Galactic GC population to the 25 cosmological zoom-in simulations of MW-mass galaxies in the E-MOSAICS project, which self-consistently model the formation and evolution of GC populations in a cosmological context, we find that the MW assembled quickly for its mass, reaching {25, 50} per cent of its present-day halo mass already at z = {3, 1.5} and half of its present-day stellar mass at z = 1.2. We reconstruct the MW's merger tree from its GC age-metallicity distribution, inferring the number of mergers as a function of mass ratio and redshift. These statistics place the MW's assembly rate among the 72th-94th percentile of the E-MOSAICS galaxies, whereas its integrated properties (e.g. number of mergers, halo concentration) match the median of the simulations. We conclude that the MW has experienced no major mergers (mass ratios >1:4) since z ∼ 4, sharpening previous limits of z ∼ 2. We identify three massive satellite progenitors and constrain their mass growth and enrichment histories. Two are proposed to correspond to Sagittarius (a few 108 M) and the GCs formerly associated with Canis Major (∼109M). The third satellite has no known associated relic and was likely accreted between z = 0.6 and 1.3. We name this enigmatic galaxy Kraken and propose that it is the most massive satellite (M*∼109^M) ever accreted by the MW. We predict that ∼40 per cent of the Galactic GCs formed ex situ (in galaxies with masses M* = 2 x 107-2×109M), with 6 ± 1 being former nuclear clusters.

Abstract Copyright: © 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society

Journal keyword(s): Galaxy: evolution - Galaxy: formation - globular clusters: general - Galaxy: halo - Galaxy: stellar content - galaxies: star formation

Simbad objects: 111

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Number of rows : 111
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NGC 104 GlC 00 24 05.359 -72 04 53.20   5.78 4.09     ~ 3747 0
2 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 11931 1
3 NGC 288 GlC 00 52 45.24 -26 34 57.4   10 8.13     ~ 991 0
4 NGC 362 GlC 01 03 14.26 -70 50 55.6     6.58     ~ 1019 0
5 NAME Whiting 1 GlC 02 02 56.8 -03 15 10           ~ 132 0
6 NGC 1261 GlC 03 12 16.21 -55 12 58.4     8.63     ~ 476 0
7 Cl Pal 1 GlC 03 33 20.04 +79 34 51.8   17.2       ~ 225 1
8 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 30 -35 27.3           ~ 1706 0
9 NAME E 1 GlC 03 55 02.5 -49 36 52           ~ 192 0
10 NAME CL ERID 1 GlC 04 24 44.5 -21 11 13           ~ 169 1
11 NGC 1851 GlC 05 14 06.76 -40 02 47.6           ~ 1340 0
12 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16242 1
13 M 79 GlC 05 24 10.59 -24 31 27.3   9.21 8.16     ~ 769 0
14 NGC 2298 GlC 06 48 59.41 -36 00 19.1   10.77 8.89     ~ 465 0
15 NAME CMa Dwarf Galaxy G 07 12.6 -27 40     -0.1     ~ 198 1
16 HD 59984 PM* 07 32 05.7629164512 -08 52 52.775251032   6.431 5.916     G0VFe-1.6CH-0.5 200 0
17 NGC 2419 GlC 07 38 08.51 +38 52 54.9     10.05     ~ 884 0
18 NAME PYX GLOBULAR CL GlC 09 07 57.80 -37 13 17.0           ~ 94 0
19 NGC 2808 GlC 09 12 03.10 -64 51 48.6           ~ 1345 0
20 NAME E 3 GlC 09 20 57.07 -77 16 54.8           ~ 151 0
21 NAME Sextans C GlC 10 05 30.96 +00 04 15.4   15.5 13.9     ~ 310 1
22 NGC 3201 GlC 10 17 36.82 -46 24 44.9           ~ 804 0
23 HD 97320 Pe* 11 11 00.7344001848 -65 25 37.745815656   9.769 9.269     F3V 135 0
24 GCl 17 GlC 11 29 16.80 +28 58 25.0   14.4       ~ 335 1
25 HD 102200 Pe* 11 45 34.2345453384 -46 03 46.386995400   9.13 8.76     F2V 103 0
26 NGC 4147 GlC 12 10 06.149 +18 32 31.78   11.45 10.74     ~ 542 0
27 NGC 4372 GlC 12 25 45.43 -72 39 32.7   10.86 9.85     ~ 285 0
28 NGC 4449 EmG 12 28 11.118 +44 05 36.81 10.11 9.98 9.64 9.45   ~ 1078 1
29 C 1235-509 GlC 12 38 40.20 -51 09 01.0           ~ 348 0
30 M 68 GlC 12 39 27.98 -26 44 38.6   10.26 7.96     ~ 942 0
31 NGC 4833 GlC 12 59 33.92 -70 52 35.4   8.72 7.79     ~ 389 0
32 M 53 GlC 13 12 55.25 +18 10 05.4   8.95 7.79     ~ 780 0
33 NGC 5053 GlC 13 16 27.09 +17 42 00.9     9.96     ~ 584 0
34 NGC 5139 GlC 13 26 47.28 -47 28 46.1   6.12 5.33     ~ 3264 0
35 M 3 GlC 13 42 11.62 +28 22 38.2     6.39     ~ 2384 0
36 NGC 5286 GlC 13 46 26.81 -51 22 27.3   9.18 8.31     ~ 408 0
37 C 1353-269 GlC 13 56 21.702 -27 10 03.00           ~ 119 0
38 NGC 5466 GlC 14 05 27.29 +28 32 04.0   10.5 9.70     ~ 785 0
39 NGC 5634 GlC 14 29 37.28 -05 58 35.1   10.69 10.05     ~ 281 0
40 NGC 5694 GlC 14 39 36.52 -26 32 18.0   11.58 10.89     ~ 285 0
41 IC 4499 GlC 15 00 18.57 -82 12 49.6     8.56     ~ 330 0
42 NGC 5824 GlC 15 03 58.612 -33 04 06.70   10.28 9.56     ~ 381 0
43 NAME Serpens Dwarf GlC 15 16 05.30 -00 06 41.0   15.1       ~ 691 1
44 NGC 5897 GlC 15 17 24.40 -21 00 36.4   10.16 8.52     ~ 365 0
45 M 5 GlC 15 18 33.22 +02 04 51.7   7.34 5.95     ~ 1887 0
46 NGC 5927 GlC 15 28 00.69 -50 40 22.9   10.13 8.86     ~ 434 0
47 NGC 5946 GlC 15 35 28.58 -50 39 35.0   11.98 10.72     ~ 180 0
48 NGC 5986 GlC 15 46 03.00 -37 47 11.1     6.92     ~ 341 0
49 BD+08 3095 PM* 15 50 58.9334638272 +08 25 23.721884040   10.60   9.8   G2 79 0
50 GCl 38 GlC 16 10 59.00 +14 57 42.0           ~ 347 0
51 Cl Lynga 7 GlC 16 11 03.65 -55 19 04.0           ~ 103 0
52 M 80 GlC 16 17 02.41 -22 58 33.9           ~ 673 0
53 M 4 GlC 16 23 35.22 -26 31 32.7           ~ 1771 0
54 NGC 6101 GlC 16 25 48.12 -72 12 07.9   10.90 10.08     ~ 268 0
55 NGC 6144 GlC 16 27 13.86 -26 01 24.6   10.55 9.63     ~ 226 0
56 HD 145344 PM* 16 27 32.3469259368 -83 28 33.478413348   8.90 8.42     F5V 41 0
57 M 107 GlC 16 32 31.86 -13 03 13.6   9.96 8.85     ~ 753 0
58 M 13 GlC 16 41 41.634 +36 27 40.75     5.8     ~ 2115 0
59 M 12 GlC 16 47 14.18 -01 56 54.7   8.52 6.07     ~ 629 0
60 NGC 6235 GlC 16 53 25.36 -22 10 38.8   11.99 7.20     ~ 174 0
61 M 10 GlC 16 57 09.05 -04 06 01.1     4.98     ~ 749 0
62 GCl 50 GlC 16 59 51.1 -00 32 00   15.70       ~ 182 1
63 M 62 GlC 17 01 12.60 -30 06 44.5   8.55 7.39     ~ 569 0
64 M 19 GlC 17 02 37.69 -26 16 04.6   8.45 5.57     ~ 345 1
65 NGC 6284 GlC 17 04 28.747 -24 45 51.22   10.72 7.43     ~ 262 0
66 NGC 6287 GlC 17 05 09.4906767360 -22 42 28.099250172   11.49 10.30     ~ 210 0
67 NGC 6304 GlC 17 14 32.25 -29 27 43.3   10.33 9.03     ~ 332 0
68 M 92 GlC 17 17 07.39 +43 08 09.4     6.52     ~ 2006 0
69 NGC 6342 GlC 17 21 10.14 -19 35 14.7   11.25 10.01     ~ 268 0
70 NGC 6352 GlC 17 25 29.11 -48 25 19.8   9.95 8.87     ~ 371 0
71 NGC 6366 GlC 17 27 44.24 -05 04 47.5           ~ 287 0
72 NGC 6362 GlC 17 31 54.99 -67 02 54.0   9.72 8.86     ~ 540 0
73 NGC 6388 GlC 17 36 17.461 -44 44 08.34   7.40       ~ 867 1
74 NGC 6397 GlC 17 40 42.09 -53 40 27.6     5.17     ~ 1892 1
75 NGC 6426 GlC 17 44 54.71 +03 10 12.5           ~ 205 0
76 NGC 6441 GlC 17 50 13.06 -37 03 05.2   9.26 8.00     ~ 834 0
77 NGC 6496 GlC 17 59 03.68 -44 15 57.4   9.96       ~ 208 0
78 NGC 6535 GlC 18 03 50.51 -00 17 51.5   11.35 9.85     ~ 271 0
79 NGC 6544 GlC 18 07 20.58 -24 59 50.4   11.36 9.90     ~ 270 0
80 NGC 6541 GlC 18 08 02.36 -43 42 53.6   8.06 7.32     ~ 350 1
81 NGC 6584 GlC 18 18 37.60 -52 12 56.8   10.32 8.17     ~ 268 0
82 NGC 6624 GlC 18 23 40.51 -30 21 39.7           ~ 833 1
83 M 69 GlC 18 31 23.10 -32 20 53.1   9.32 8.31     ~ 440 1
84 NGC 6652 GlC 18 35 45.63 -32 59 26.6   10.64 9.75     ~ 396 0
85 M 22 GlC 18 36 23.94 -23 54 17.1   7.16 6.17     ~ 1304 0
86 M 70 GlC 18 43 12.76 -32 17 31.6   9.76 9.06     ~ 357 0
87 NGC 6712 GlC 18 53 04.32 -08 42 21.5   9.85 8.69     ~ 496 0
88 NAME SDG G 18 55 03.1 -30 28 42   4.5 3.6     ~ 1986 2
89 M 54 GlC 18 55 03.33 -30 28 47.5           ~ 1007 0
90 NGC 6717 GlC 18 55 06.04 -22 42 05.3   11.29 10.35     ~ 224 0
91 NGC 6723 GlC 18 59 33.15 -36 37 56.1           ~ 473 0
92 NGC 6752 GlC 19 10 52.11 -59 59 04.4   6.96 6.28     ~ 1910 0
93 M 56 GlC 19 16 35.57 +30 11 00.5   8.90       ~ 397 0
94 Cl Terzan 7 GlC 19 17 43.92 -34 39 27.8           ~ 402 0
95 Cl Arp 2 GlC 19 28 44.11 -30 21 20.3     12.41     ~ 334 0
96 M 55 GlC 19 39 59.71 -30 57 53.1     6.49     ~ 813 0
97 Cl Terzan 8 GlC 19 41 44.41 -33 59 58.1     11.54     ~ 296 0
98 M 71 GlC 19 53 46.49 +18 46 45.1   7.91 6.1     ~ 1078 0
99 M 75 GlC 20 06 04.841 -21 55 20.14     8.26     ~ 344 0
100 NGC 6934 GlC 20 34 11.37 +07 24 16.1   10.48 9.75     ~ 393 0
101 HD 196892 PM* 20 40 49.3802982816 -18 47 33.282293972   8.73 8.23     F6V 118 0
102 M 72 GlC 20 53 27.70 -12 32 14.3   9.95 8.96     ~ 397 0
103 NGC 7006 GlC 21 01 29.465 +16 11 16.49     10.46     ~ 507 0
104 M 15 GlC 21 29 58.33 +12 10 01.2   3       ~ 3037 0
105 M 2 GlC 21 33 27.02 -00 49 23.7     6.25     ~ 972 1
106 M 30 GlC 21 40 22.12 -23 10 47.5     7.10     ~ 986 0
107 Cl Pal 12 GlC 21 46 38.84 -21 15 09.4     11.89     ~ 492 0
108 NGC 7492 GlC 23 08 26.68 -15 36 41.3     10.48     ~ 283 0
109 NAME Monoceros Stream St* ~ ~           ~ 338 0
110 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7764 0
111 NAME Galactic Bulge reg ~ ~           ~ 3926 0

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2022.09.26-08:29:13

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