Astrophys. J., 881, 9-9 (2019/August-2)
EvryFlare. I. Long-term Evryscope monitoring of flares from the cool stars across half the southern sky.
HOWARD W.S., CORBETT H., LAW N.M., RATZLOFF J.K., GLAZIER A., FORS O., DEL SER D. and HAISLIP J.
Abstract (from CDS):
We search for superflares from 4068 cool stars in 2+ yr of Evryscope photometry, focusing on those with high-cadence data from both Evryscope and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The Evryscope array of small telescopes observed 575 flares from 284 stars, with a median energy of 1034.0 erg. Since 2016, Evryscope has enabled the detection of rare events from all stars observed by TESS through multi-year, high-cadence continuous observing. We report around twice the previous largest number of 1034 erg high-cadence flares from nearby cool stars. We find eight flares with amplitudes of 3+ g' magnitudes, with the largest reaching 5.6 mag and releasing 1036.2 erg. We observe a 1034 erg superflare from TOI-455 (LTT 1445), a mid-M with a rocky planet candidate. We measure the superflare rate per flare-star and quantify the average flaring of active stars as a function of spectral type, including superflare rates, flare frequency distributions, and typical flare amplitudes in g'. We confirm superflare morphology is broadly consistent with magnetic reconnection. We estimate starspot coverage necessary to produce superflares, and hypothesize maximum allowed superflare energies and waiting times between flares corresponding to 100% coverage of the stellar hemisphere. We observe decreased flaring at high Galactic latitudes. We explore the effects of superflares on ozone loss to planetary atmospheres: we observe one superflare with sufficient energy to photodissociate all ozone in an Earth-like atmosphere in one event. We find 17 stars that may deplete an Earth-like atmosphere via repeated flaring. Of the 1822 stars around which TESS may discover temperate rocky planets, we observe 14.6% ± 2% emit large flares.
© 2019. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
stars: flare - stars: low-mass - surveys - ultraviolet: planetary systems - ultraviolet: stars
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/881/9): table1.dat table2.dat>
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