2019A&A...623A.173V


Query : 2019A&A...623A.173V

2019A&A...623A.173V - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 623A, 173-173 (2019/3-1)

The population of SNe/SNRs in the starburst galaxy Arp 220. A self-consistent analysis of 20 years of VLBI monitoring.

VARENIUS E., CONWAY J.E., BATEJAT F., MARTI-VIDAL I., PEREZ-TORRES M.A., AALTO S., ALBERDI A., LONSDALE C.J. and DIAMOND P.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. The nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 is an excellent laboratory for studies of extreme astrophysical environments. For 20 years, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has been used to monitor a population of compact sources thought to be supernovae (SNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), and possibly active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SNe and SNRs are thought to be the sites of relativistic particle acceleration powering star formation induced radio emission in galaxies, and are hence important for studies of for example the origin of the FIR-radio correlation.
Aims. In this work we aim for a self-consistent analysis of a large collection of Arp 220 continuum VLBI data sets. With more data and improved consistency in calibration and imaging, we aim to detect more sources and improve source classifications with respect to previous studies. Furthermore, we aim to increase the number of sources with robust size estimates, to analyse the compact source luminosity function (LF), and to search for a luminosity-diameter (LD) relation within Arp 220.
Methods. Using new and archival VLBI data spanning 20 years, we obtained 23 high-resolution radio images of Arp 220 at wavelengths from 18cm to 2cm. From model-fitting to the images we obtained estimates of flux densities and sizes of detected sources. The sources were classified in groups according to their observed lightcurves, spectra and sizes. We fitted a multi-frequency supernova light-curve model to the object brightest at 6cm to estimate explosion properties for this object.
Results. We detect radio continuum emission from 97 compact sources and present flux densities and sizes for all analysed observation epochs. The positions of the sources trace the star forming disks of the two nuclei known from lower-resolution studies. We find evidence for a LD-relation within Arp 220, with larger sources being less luminous. We find a compact source LF n(L)∝Lβ with β=-2.19±0.15, similar to SNRs in normal galaxies, and we argue that there are many relatively large and weak sources below our detection threshold. The brightest (at 6cm) object 0.2195+0.492 is modelled as a radio SN with an unusually long 6cm rise time of 17 years.
Conclusions. The observations can be explained by a mixed population of SNe and SNRs, where the former expand in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) and the latter interact with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Nine sources are likely luminous SNe, for example type IIn, and correspond to few percent of the total number of SNe in Arp 220. Assuming all IIns reach these luminosities, and no confusion with other SNe types, our data are consistent with a total SN-rate of 4yr–1 as inferred from the total radio emission given a normal stellar initial mass function (IMF). Based on the fitted luminosity function, we argue that emission from all compact sources, also below our detection threshold, make up at most 20% of the total radio emission at GHz frequencies. However, colliding SN shocks and the production of secondary electrons through cosmic ray (CR) protons colliding with the dense ISM may cause weak sources to radiate much longer than assumed in this work. This could potentially explain the remaining fraction of the smooth synchrotron component. Future, deeper observations of Arp 220 will probe the sources with lower luminosities and larger sizes. This will further constrain the evolution of SNe/SNRs in extreme environments and the presence of AGN activity.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2019

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: star formation - galaxies: starburst - galaxies: individual: Arp 220 - ISM: supernova remnants - supernovae: general

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/623/A173): catalog.dat table2.dat list.dat fitsimages/* calibration/* fitresults/* fitting/* stacking/*>

Nomenclature: Tables 3-4: [VCB2019] x.xxxx+y.yyy N=97.

Simbad objects: 112

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Number of rows : 112
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 SN 1986J SN* 02 22 31.33 +42 19 56.4   18.4 18.4     SNII 314 1
2 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16412 1
3 SN 1993J SN* 09 55 24.77476 +69 01 13.7026   10.8 12.0     SNIIb 1354 1
4 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5658 6
5 SN 1988Z SN* 10 51 50.10 +16 00 00.5   16.8       SNIIn 358 1
6 NGC 3690 IG 11 28 31.326 +58 33 41.80   13.19 12.86     ~ 947 4
7 QSO B1404+286 BLL 14 07 00.39441712 +28 27 14.6901341   16.13 15.35 10.29   ~ 736 2
8 QSO B1514+197 BLL 15 16 56.79616460 +19 32 12.9919519 18.59 18.19 18.7 17.51   ~ 149 1
9 ICRF J153246.3+234405 QSO 15 32 46.34521171 +23 44 05.2679870           ~ 30 1
10 [LDT2006] W46 Rad 15 34 57.20661257098 +23 30 11.4583540352           ~ 2 0
11 [LDT2006] W44 Rad 15 34 57.20819409235 +23 30 11.5477696514           ~ 2 0
12 [VCB2019] 0.2084+0.534 Rad 15 34 57.20839822952 +23 30 11.5342218088           ~ 1 0
13 [VCB2019] 0.2106+0.487 Rad 15 34 57.21059246929 +23 30 11.4873010855           ~ 1 0
14 [VCB2019] 0.2108+0.512 Rad 15 34 57.21082630149 +23 30 11.5123293815           ~ 1 0
15 [LDT2006] W42 SNR 15 34 57.21230 +23 30 11.4820           ~ 10 0
16 [VCB2019] 0.2149+0.542 Rad 15 34 57.21488683078 +23 30 11.5416041090           ~ 1 0
17 [VCB2019] 0.2154+0.450 Rad 15 34 57.21537826644 +23 30 11.4497934511           ~ 1 0
18 [LDT2006] W40 Rad 15 34 57.21612439312 +23 30 11.4786160315           ~ 2 0
19 [LDT2006] W41 Rad 15 34 57.21615360820 +23 30 11.4040491155           ~ 2 0
20 [LDT2006] W39 SNR 15 34 57.2171 +23 30 11.485           ~ 9 0
21 [VCB2019] 0.2173+0.569 Rad 15 34 57.21729247578 +23 30 11.5690612416           ~ 1 0
22 [LDT2006] W58 Rad 15 34 57.21944469034 +23 30 11.5072153629           ~ 3 0
23 [LDT2006] W34 Rad 15 34 57.2195 +23 30 11.492           ~ 5 0
24 APG 220A PoG 15 34 57.22 +23 30 11.4           ~ 54 1
25 [LDT2006] W33 Rad 15 34 57.2200 +23 30 11.491           ~ 9 0
26 [LDT2006] W56 Rad 15 34 57.2205 +23 30 11.491           ~ 4 0
27 [VCB2019] 0.2212+0.540 Rad 15 34 57.22115502212 +23 30 11.5404272719           ~ 1 0
28 [LDT2006] W29 Rad 15 34 57.22116218003 +23 30 11.4440711365           ~ 3 0
29 [LDT2006] W30 SNR 15 34 57.2214 +23 30 11.402           ~ 7 0
30 [VCB2019] 0.2218+0.528 Rad 15 34 57.22175929560 +23 30 11.5284164267           ~ 1 0
31 [LDT2006] W25 Rad 15 34 57.2222 +23 30 11.500           ~ 5 0
32 [LDT2006] W26 Rad 15 34 57.22228699990 +23 30 11.4346060149           ~ 3 0
33 [LDT2006] W55 Rad 15 34 57.2227 +23 30 11.482           ~ 4 0
34 [LDT2006] W11 Rad 15 34 57.2230 +23 30 11.502           ~ 5 0
35 [VCB2019] 0.2234+0.477 Rad 15 34 57.22343629037 +23 30 11.4766186858           ~ 1 0
36 [VCB2019] 0.2239+0.470 Rad 15 34 57.22391048203 +23 30 11.4700143251           ~ 1 0
37 IC 4553 SyG 15 34 57.22396 +23 30 11.6084   14.76 13.88     ~ 2859 4
38 [LDT2006] W18 SNR 15 34 57.2240 +23 30 11.546           ~ 10 0
39 [LDT2006] W17 SNR 15 34 57.2241 +23 30 11.519           ~ 10 0
40 [LDT2006] W16 Rad 15 34 57.22435003513 +23 30 11.5309441657           ~ 2 0
41 [LLD98] W1 Mas 15 34 57.2246 +23 30 11.564           ~ 5 0
42 [VCB2019] 0.2249+0.586 Rad 15 34 57.22491832281 +23 30 11.5864177143           ~ 1 0
43 [LDT2006] W15 SNR 15 34 57.2253 +23 30 11.483           ~ 6 0
44 [VCB2019] 0.2262+0.512 Rad 15 34 57.22620276754 +23 30 11.5122661930           ~ 1 0
45 [VCB2019] 0.2264+0.448 Rad 15 34 57.22635675600 +23 30 11.4479175535           ~ 1 0
46 [LDT2006] W14 Rad 15 34 57.22692251430 +23 30 11.5740065389           ~ 2 0
47 [LDT2006] W60 Rad 15 34 57.22759641529 +23 30 11.5461152570           ~ 3 0
48 [VCB2019] 0.2277+0.528 Rad 15 34 57.22773183191 +23 30 11.5277063969           ~ 1 0
49 [VCB2019] 0.2281+0.605 Rad 15 34 57.22813209916 +23 30 11.6049788547           ~ 1 0
50 [VCB2019] 0.2286+0.583 Rad 15 34 57.22863796163 +23 30 11.5834158504           ~ 1 0
51 [VCB2019] 0.2290+0.564 Rad 15 34 57.22898912797 +23 30 11.5644358530           ~ 1 0
52 [LDT2006] W12 Rad 15 34 57.2295 +23 30 11.524           ~ 5 0
53 [LDT2006] W10 SNR 15 34 57.2307 +23 30 11.502           ~ 8 0
54 [VCB2019] 0.2310+0.496 Rad 15 34 57.23104175478 +23 30 11.4962491312           ~ 1 0
55 [VCB2019] 0.2311+0.498 Rad 15 34 57.23111091204 +23 30 11.4980823681           ~ 1 0
56 [VCB2019] 0.2317+0.402 Rad 15 34 57.23170471338 +23 30 11.4015573552           ~ 1 0
57 [VCB2019] 0.2347+0.495 Rad 15 34 57.23474768976 +23 30 11.4950987225           ~ 1 0
58 [LDT2006] W8 SNR 15 34 57.2361 +23 30 11.432           ~ 7 0
59 [LDT2006] W7 Rad 15 34 57.23616392045 +23 30 11.5461690871           ~ 3 0
60 [VCB2019] 0.2363+0.369 Rad 15 34 57.23626473794 +23 30 11.3694731592           ~ 1 0
61 [VCB2019] 0.2364+0.639 Rad 15 34 57.23636911876 +23 30 11.6390623331           ~ 1 0
62 [LDT2006] W2 Rad 15 34 57.23940761764 +23 30 11.5398105422           ~ 1 0
63 [VCB2019] 0.2395+0.637 Rad 15 34 57.23949470433 +23 30 11.6369672401           ~ 1 0
64 [VCB2019] 0.2409+0.540 Rad 15 34 57.24089624442 +23 30 11.5401517783           ~ 1 0
65 [VCB2019] 0.2758+0.276 Rad 15 34 57.27579429863 +23 30 11.2764358537           ~ 1 0
66 [VCB2019] 0.2789+0.293 Rad 15 34 57.27894747535 +23 30 11.2928078327           ~ 1 0
67 [VCB2019] 0.2801+0.353 Rad 15 34 57.28009904518 +23 30 11.3532509555           ~ 1 0
68 [VCB2019] 0.2814+0.316 Rad 15 34 57.28135865336 +23 30 11.3158286726           ~ 1 0
69 [LDT2006] E20 Rad 15 34 57.28206278627 +23 30 11.1826762411           ~ 2 0
70 [VCB2019] 0.2835+0.308 Rad 15 34 57.28349171579 +23 30 11.3075930375           ~ 1 0
71 [VCB2019] 0.2840+0.151 Rad 15 34 57.28401141765 +23 30 11.1505081624           ~ 1 0
72 [LDT2006] E18 Rad 15 34 57.28423210859 +23 30 11.2261961725           ~ 2 0
73 [VCB2019] 0.2848+0.294 Rad 15 34 57.28475899296 +23 30 11.2941043107           ~ 1 0
74 [LDT2006] E16 Rad 15 34 57.28482933237 +23 30 11.4710604945           ~ 2 0
75 [LDT2006] E17 Rad 15 34 57.28501020690 +23 30 11.1930489224           ~ 2 0
76 [VCB2019] 0.2858+0.013 Rad 15 34 57.28583314159 +23 30 11.0125167485           ~ 1 0
77 [LDT2006] E14 Rad 15 34 57.2868 +23 30 11.297           ~ 5 0
78 [VCB2019] 0.2875+0.352 Rad 15 34 57.28752920774 +23 30 11.3521077614           ~ 1 0
79 [LDT2006] E13 Rad 15 34 57.28777228309 +23 30 11.3081849143           ~ 3 0
80 [VCB2019] 0.2881+0.369 Rad 15 34 57.28809129559 +23 30 11.3687156303           ~ 1 0
81 [VCB2019] 0.2883+0.338 Rad 15 34 57.28830352650 +23 30 11.3375052946           ~ 1 0
82 [VCB2019] 0.2887+0.201 Rad 15 34 57.28868007221 +23 30 11.2011612121           ~ 1 0
83 [VCB2019] 0.2890+0.337 Rad 15 34 57.28898365104 +23 30 11.3373615983           ~ 1 0
84 [VCB2019] 0.2891+0.253 Rad 15 34 57.28905650846 +23 30 11.2528470364           ~ 1 0
85 [VCB2019] 0.2897+0.335 Rad 15 34 57.28966532704 +23 30 11.3345911230           ~ 1 0
86 [VCB2019] 0.2897+0.278 Rad 15 34 57.28968629188 +23 30 11.2780930010           ~ 1 0
87 [LDT2006] E11 Rad 15 34 57.29098839150 +23 30 11.3254556787           ~ 4 0
88 [VCB2019] 0.2914+0.333 Rad 15 34 57.29135061118 +23 30 11.3329066856           ~ 1 0
89 [VCB2019] 0.2915+0.476 Rad 15 34 57.29149782267 +23 30 11.4763038716           ~ 1 0
90 [LDT2006] E10 Rad 15 34 57.2915 +23 30 11.335           ~ 5 0
91 [VCB2019] 0.2919+0.340 Rad 15 34 57.29191379555 +23 30 11.3396524994           ~ 1 0
92 [LDT2006] E24 Rad 15 34 57.2928 +23 30 11.373           ~ 2 0
93 [LDT2006] E8 LIN 15 34 57.29308521909 +23 30 11.3295007677           ~ 3 0
94 [VCB2019] 0.2938+0.344 Rad 15 34 57.29380544294 +23 30 11.3444666194           ~ 1 0
95 [VCB2019] 0.2940+0.481 Rad 15 34 57.29401758135 +23 30 11.4809110818           ~ 1 0
96 [LDT2006] E7 Rad 15 34 57.29433086935 +23 30 11.2786065900           ~ 2 0
97 [LDT2006] E6 Rad 15 34 57.29466244029 +23 30 11.2630910196           ~ 2 0
98 [VCB2019] 0.2951+0.384 Rad 15 34 57.29512147125 +23 30 11.3840519500           ~ 1 0
99 [VCB2019] 0.2954+0.393 Rad 15 34 57.29539735435 +23 30 11.3931032664           ~ 1 0
100 [VCB2019] 0.2959+0.263 Rad 15 34 57.29591816663 +23 30 11.2631376710           ~ 1 0
101 [VCB2019] 0.2971+0.378 Rad 15 34 57.29708014855 +23 30 11.3778089635           ~ 1 0
102 [VCB2019] 0.2979+0.419 Rad 15 34 57.29793679501 +23 30 11.4185079289           ~ 1 0
103 [VCB2019] 0.2995+0.502 Rad 15 34 57.29948238518 +23 30 11.5016686001           ~ 1 0
104 [VCB2019] 0.3011+0.341 Rad 15 34 57.30109817902 +23 30 11.3408340665           ~ 1 0
105 [VCB2019] 0.3073+0.456 Rad 15 34 57.30728891438 +23 30 11.4563951807           ~ 1 0
106 [LDT2006] E3 Rad 15 34 57.30730166270 +23 30 11.3321144981           ~ 2 0
107 [VCB2019] 0.3090+0.618 Rad 15 34 57.30901732120 +23 30 11.6179966416           ~ 1 0
108 [VCB2019] 0.3103+0.575 Rad 15 34 57.31031568826 +23 30 11.5754489904           ~ 1 0
109 [VCB2019] 0.3125+0.494 Rad 15 34 57.31249522219 +23 30 11.4938857835           ~ 1 0
110 6C 161147+342017 QSO 16 13 41.06424322 +34 12 47.9088535   17.98 17.46 17.07   ~ 607 1
111 [LLD98] E2 Mas ~ ~           ~ 3 0
112 [LLD98] E1 Mas ~ ~           ~ 3 0

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2022.12.07-09:56:32

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