Astrophys. J., 867, L7-L7 (2018/November-1)
Gemini, SOFIA, and ATCA reveal very young, massive protostars in the collapsing molecular cloud BYF 73.
PITTS R.L., BARNES P.J., RYDER S.D. and LI D.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present multi-wavelength data on the globally infalling molecular cloud/protostellar cluster BYF 73. These include new far-infrared (FIR) spectral line and continuum data from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's (SOFIA's) Far Infrared Field-Imaging Line Spectrometer (FIFI-LS), mid-infrared (MIR) observations with the Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph (T-ReCS) on Gemini-South, and 3 mm continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), plus archival data from Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and Herschel/Photodetecting Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). The FIFI-LS spectroscopy in [O I]λ63µm, [O III]λ88µm, [O I]λ145µm, and [C II]λ158µm highlights different gas environments in and between the dense molecular cloud and H II region. The photo dissociation region (PDR) between the cloud and H II region is best traced by [O I]λ145µm and may have density >1010 m–3, but the observed λ145µm/λ63µm and λ63 µm/λ158 µm line ratios in the densest gas are well outside model values. The H II region is well-traced by [C II], with the λ158 µm/λ145 µm line ratio, indicating a density of 108.5 m–3 and a relatively weak ionizing radiation field, 1.5 <= log(G/G0) <= 2. The T-ReCS data reveal eight protostellar objects in the cloud, of which six appear deeply embedded (AV > 30m or more) near the cloud's center. MIR 2 has the most massive core at ∼240 M☉, more massive than all the others combined by up to tenfold, with no obvious gas outflow, negligible cooling line emission, and ∼3%-8% of its 4.7 x 103 L☉ luminosity originating from the release of gravitational potential energy. MIR 2's dynamical age may be as little as 7000 years. This fact, and the cloud's total embedded stellar mass being far less than its gas mass, confirm BYF 73's relatively early stage of evolution.
© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
infrared: ISM - ISM: lines and bands - stars: formation - stars: protostars - submillimeter: ISM
Protostellar objects MIR 1 to MIR 6 are not in SIMBAD (no coordinates given).
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