Astrophys. J., 860, 174-174 (2018/June-3)
CO in protostars (COPS): Herschel-SPIRE spectroscopy of embedded protostars.
YANG Y.-L., GREEN J.D., EVANS II N.J., LEE J.-E., JORGENSEN J.K., KRISTENSEN L.E., MOTTRAM J.C., HERCZEG G., KARSKA A., DIONATOS O., BERGIN E.A., BOUWMAN J., VAN DISHOECK E.F., VAN KEMPEN T.A., LARSON R.L. and YILDIZ U.A.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present full spectral scans from 200 to 670 µm of 26 Class 0+I protostellar sources obtained with Herschel-SPIRE as part of the "COPS-SPIRE" Open Time program, complementary to the DIGIT and WISH Key Programs. Based on our nearly continuous, line-free spectra from 200 to 670 µm, the calculated bolometric luminosities (Lbol) increase by 50% on average, and the bolometric temperatures (Tbol) decrease by 10% on average, in comparison with the measurements without Herschel. Fifteen protostars have the same class using Tbol and Lbol/Lsmm. We identify rotational transitions of CO lines from J=4→3 to J=13→12, along with emission lines of 13CO, HCO+, H2O, and [C I]. The ratios of 12CO to 13CO indicate that 12CO emission remains optically thick for Jup < 13. We fit up to four components of temperature from the rotational diagram with flexible break points to separate the components. The distribution of rotational temperatures shows a primary population around 100 K with a secondary population at ∼350 K. We quantify the correlations of each line pair found in our data set and find that the strength of the correlation of CO lines decreases as the difference between J levels between two CO lines increases. The multiple origins of CO emission previously revealed by velocity-resolved profiles are consistent with this smooth distribution if each physical component contributes to a wide range of CO lines with significant overlap in the CO ladder. We investigate the spatial extent of CO emission and find that the morphology is more centrally peaked and less bipolar at high-J lines. We find the CO emission observed with SPIRE related to outflows, which consists of two components, the entrained gas and shocked gas, as revealed by our rotational diagram analysis, as well as the studies with velocity-resolved CO emission.
© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
ISM: molecules - stars: protostars - submillimeter: ISM - submillimeter: stars - surveys
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/860/174): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat table5.dat table10.dat table12.dat fig17.dat refs.dat>
Table 1: RCrA IRS7C is [NWA2005] SMM 1C in SIMBAD.
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