SIMBAD references

2018ApJ...853..168B - Astrophys. J., 853, 168-168 (2018/February-1)

Models of the mass-ejection histories of pre-planetary nebulae. II. The formation of Minkowski's Butterfly and its proboscis in M2-9.


Abstract (from CDS):

M2-9, or the "Minkowski's Butterfly," is one of the most iconic outflow sources from an evolved star. In this paper we present a hydrodynamic model of M2-9 in which the nebula is formed and shaped by a steady, low-density ("light"), mildly collimated "spray" of gas injected at 200 km s–1 that interacts with a far denser, intrinsically simple pre-existing AGB wind that has slowly formed all of the complex features within M2-9's lobes (including the knot pairs N3/S3 and N4/S4 at their respective leading edges, and the radial gradient of Doppler shifts within 20'' of the nucleus). We emphasize that the knot pairs are not ejected from the star but formed in situ. In addition, the observed radial speed of the knots is only indirectly related to the speed of the gas injected by the star. The model allows us to probe the early history of the wind geometry and lobe formation. We also formulate a new estimate of the nebular distance D = 1.3 kpc. The physical mechanism that accounts for the linear radial speed gradient in M2-9 applies generally to many other pre-planetary nebulae whose hollow lobes exhibit similar gradients along their edges.

Abstract Copyright: © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Journal keyword(s): planetary nebulae: individual: M2-9 - stars: AGB and post-AGB - stars: winds, outflows - stars: winds, outflows

CDS comments: Knots S1-S4 and N1-N4 are not in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 17

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