2017A&A...607A..98D


Query : 2017A&A...607A..98D

2017A&A...607A..98D - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 607A, 98-98 (2017/11-1)

CHEERS: The chemical evolution RGS sample.

DE PLAA J., KAASTRA J.S., WERNER N., PINTO C., KOSEC P., ZHANG Y.-Y., MERNIER F., LOVISARI L., AKAMATSU H., SCHELLENBERGER G., HOFMANN F., REIPRICH T.H., FINOGUENOV A., AHORANTA J., SANDERS J.S., FABIAN A.C., POLS O., SIMIONESCU A., VINK J. and BOHRINGER H.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. The chemical yields of supernovae and the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) are not well understood. The hot gas in clusters of galaxies has been enriched with metals originating from billions of supernovae and provides a fair sample of large-scale metal enrichment in the Universe. High-resolution X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies provide a unique way of measuring abundances in the hot intracluster medium (ICM). The abundance measurements can provide constraints on the supernova explosion mechanism and the initial-mass function of the stellar population. This paper introduces the CHEmical Enrichment RGS Sample (CHEERS), which is a sample of 44 bright local giant ellipticals, groups, and clusters of galaxies observed with XMM-Newton.
Aims. The CHEERS project aims to provide the most accurate set of cluster abundances measured in X-rays using this sample. This paper focuses specifically on the abundance measurements of O and Fe using the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM-Newton. We aim to thoroughly discuss the cluster to cluster abundance variations and the robustness of the measurements.
Methods. We have selected the CHEERS sample such that the oxygen abundance in each cluster is detected at a level of at least 5σ in the RGS. The dispersive nature of the RGS limits the sample to clusters with sharp surface brightness peaks. The deep exposures and the size of the sample allow us to quantify the intrinsic scatter and the systematic uncertainties in the abundances using spectral modeling techniques.
Results. We report the oxygen and iron abundances as measured with RGS in the core regions of all 44 clusters in the sample. We do not find a significant trend of O/Fe as a function of cluster temperature, but we do find an intrinsic scatter in the O and Fe abundances from cluster to cluster. The level of systematic uncertainties in the O/Fe ratio is estimated to be around 20-30%, while the systematic uncertainties in the absolute O and Fe abundances can be as high as 50% in extreme cases. Thanks to the high statistics of the observations, we were able to identify and correct a systematic bias in the oxygen abundance determination that was due to an inaccuracy in the spectral model.
Conclusions. The lack of dependence of O/Fe on temperature suggests that the enrichment of the ICM does not depend on cluster mass and that most of the enrichment likely took place before the ICM was formed. We find that the observed scatter in the O/Fe ratio is due to a combination of intrinsic scatter in the source and systematic uncertainties in the spectral fitting, which we are unable to separate. The astrophysical source of intrinsic scatter could be due to differences in active galactic nucleus activity and ongoing star formation in the brightest cluster galaxy. The systematic scatter is due to uncertainties in the spatial line broadening, absorption column, multi-temperature structure, and the thermal plasma models.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): X-rays: galaxies: clusters - galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium - supernovae: general - galaxies: abundances - galaxies: abundances

Simbad objects: 44

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Number of rows : 44
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 ACO 85 ClG 00 41 37.8 -09 20 33           ~ 841 0
2 ACO 133 ClG 01 02 39.0 -21 57 15           ~ 350 1
3 NGC 507 BiC 01 23 39.950 +33 15 22.22   13.0       ~ 415 3
4 ACO 189 ClG 01 23 40.4 +01 38 38           ~ 100 1
5 ACO 262 ClG 01 52 50.4 +36 08 46           ~ 677 1
6 2MAXI J0254+416 ClG 02 54 32.2 +41 35 10           ~ 304 1
7 ACO 3112 ClG 03 17 52.4 -44 14 35           ~ 297 1
8 ACO 426 ClG 03 19 47.2 +41 30 47           ~ 2102 1
9 NGC 1316 GiP 03 22 41.789 -37 12 29.52 9.81 9.15 8.53 7.66   ~ 1288 1
10 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 30 -35 27.3           ~ 1694 0
11 ZwCl 0335+0956 ClG 03 38 35.3 +09 57 54           ~ 358 1
12 NGC 1404 GiP 03 38 51.917 -35 35 39.81 11.53 10.69 10.00 9.03   ~ 711 1
13 NGC 1550 BiC 04 19 37.9450450152 +02 24 35.918168940   14.0       ~ 165 1
14 ClG 0422-09 ClG 04 25 51.02 -08 33 38.5           ~ 89 0
15 ACO 496 ClG 04 33 30.3838 -13 14 21.584           ~ 670 2
16 ACO 780 ClG 09 18 30 -12 15.7           ~ 443 0
17 NGC 3411 BiC 10 50 26.0811795768 -12 50 42.313849764   9.0   11.60   ~ 69 1
18 NAME NGC 4073 Group GrG 12 04 21.7 +01 50 19     13.53     ~ 255 0
19 NGC 4261 LIN 12 19 23.2160630 +05 49 29.700024   13.92 12.87     ~ 1171 0
20 NGC 4325 BiC 12 23 06.662 +10 37 16.45   15.0       ~ 123 1
21 M 84 Sy2 12 25 03.74333 +12 53 13.1393 12.67 12.09 10.49     ~ 1699 2
22 M 86 GiG 12 26 11.814 +12 56 45.49 10.32 9.83 8.90   7.50 ~ 1048 1
23 M 49 Sy2 12 29 46.798 +08 00 01.48   13.21 12.17     ~ 2026 2
24 M 87 BiC 12 30 49.42338230 +12 23 28.0438581 10.16 9.59 8.63   7.49 ~ 6684 3
25 M 89 LIN 12 35 39.8073444 +12 33 22.830809 11.29 10.73 9.75     ~ 962 2
26 NGC 4636 LIN 12 42 49.8333280080 +02 41 15.951929028   12.62 11.84     ~ 1077 1
27 M 60 GiP 12 43 39.9708251928 +11 33 09.688174056   10.3       ~ 1303 1
28 ACO 3526 ClG 12 48 51.8 -41 18 21           ~ 1018 2
29 HCG 62 CGG 12 53 05.6 -09 12 21           ~ 299 0
30 NGC 5044 BiC 13 15 23.9607836592 -16 23 07.547751744   11.9   10.74   ~ 477 0
31 ACO 1795 ClG 13 49 00.5 +26 35 07           ~ 1203 0
32 ACO 3581 ClG 14 07 29.8 -27 01 04           ~ 174 3
33 ACO 1991 ClG 14 54 30.2 +18 37 51           ~ 315 1
34 NGC 5813 LIN 15 01 11.2302420864 +01 42 07.141569696 12.00 11.45 10.46 10.06   ~ 608 1
35 NGC 5846 BiC 15 06 29.253 +01 36 20.29   11.9   9.74   ~ 815 1
36 ACO 2029 ClG 15 10 58.7 +05 45 42           ~ 893 0
37 ACO 2052 ClG 15 16 45.5 +07 00 01           ~ 702 1
38 NAME NGC 5920 Group ClG 15 21 50.7 +07 42 18     15.13     ~ 295 0
39 ACO 2199 ClG 16 28 37.0 +39 31 28           ~ 1129 1
40 ACO S 1101 ClG 23 13 58.5 -42 43 39           ~ 242 1
41 ACO 2597 ClG 23 25 19.70 -12 07 27.7           ~ 517 0
42 ACO 2626 ClG 23 36 31.0 +21 09 36           ~ 227 0
43 ACO 4038 ClG 23 47 31.1 -28 12 10           ~ 326 3
44 ACO 4059 ClG 23 56 40.7 -34 40 18           ~ 367 1

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2022.07.06-08:41:33

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