2015MNRAS.446..470L


Query : 2015MNRAS.446..470L

2015MNRAS.446..470L - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 446, 470-492 (2015/January-1)

A deficit of ultraluminous X-ray sources in luminous infrared galaxies.

LUANGTIP W., ROBERTS T.P., MINEO S., LEHMER B.D., ALEXANDER D.M., JACKSON F.E., GOULDING A.D. and FISCHER J.L.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present results from a Chandra study of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in a sample of 17 nearby (DL < 60 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), selected to have star formation rates (SFRs) in excess of 7 M/yr and low foreground Galactic column densities (NH ≲ 5x1020/ cm2). A total of 53 ULXs were detected and we confirm that this is a complete catalogue of ULXs for the LIRG sample. We examine the evolution of ULX spectra with luminosity in these galaxies by stacking the spectra of individual objects in three luminosity bins, finding a distinct change in spectral index at luminosity ∼ 2x1039erg/s. This may be a change in spectrum as 10M black holes transit from an ∼ Eddington to a super-Eddington accretion regime, and is supported by a plausible detection of partially ionized absorption imprinted on the spectrum of the luminous ULX (LX ~ 5x1039erg/s) CXOU J024238.9-000055 in NGC 1068, consistent with the highly ionized massive wind that we would expect to see driven by a super-Eddington accretion flow. This sample shows a large deficit in the number of ULXs detected per unit SFR (0.2 versus 2 ULXs, per M/yr) compared to the detection rate in nearby (DL < 14.5 Mpc) normal star-forming galaxies. This deficit also manifests itself as a lower differential X-ray luminosity function normalization for the LIRG sample than for samples of other star-forming galaxies. We show that it is unlikely that this deficit is a purely observational effect. Part of this deficit might be attributable to the high metallicity of the LIRGs impeding the production efficiency of ULXs and/or a lag between the star formation starting and the production of ULXs; however, we argue that the evidence - including very low NULX/LFIR, and an even lower ULX incidence in the central regions of the LIRGs - shows that the main culprit for this deficit is likely to be the high column of gas and dust in these galaxies, that fuels the high SFR but also acts to obscure many ULXs from our view.

Abstract Copyright: © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

Journal keyword(s): accretion, accretion discs - black hole physics - galaxies: starburst - infrared: galaxies - X-rays: binaries

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/MNRAS/446/470): tablea1.dat tablea2.dat>

Status at CDS : All or part of tables of objects could be ingested in SIMBAD with priority 2.

Simbad objects: 29

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Number of rows : 29
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NGC 23 G 00 09 53.411 +25 55 25.46   12.5       ~ 299 3
2 NGC 253 SyG 00 47 33.134 -25 17 19.68   8.03   6.94 8.1 ~ 3151 2
3 ESO 243-49 GiG 01 10 27.7550638752 -46 04 27.356310264 16.54 14.92   13.48   ~ 165 0
4 [FWB2009] HLX-1 ULX 01 10 28.30 -46 04 22.3     24.5 23.80   ~ 176 1
5 NGC 838 LIN 02 09 38.562 -10 08 46.12   13.72   12.65   ~ 181 0
6 [LB2005] NGC 1068 X2 UX? 02 42 37.94 -00 01 17.9           ~ 4 0
7 [SST2011] J024238.89-000055.1 UX? 02 42 38.89 -00 00 55.2           ~ 10 1
8 [SST2011] J024239.71-000101.4 UX? 02 42 39.71 -00 01 01.3           ~ 7 1
9 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.7091669408 -00 00 47.859690204 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4350 2
10 NGC 1365 Sy1 03 33 36.458 -36 08 26.37 10.48 10.08 9.63 8.79 9.7 ~ 1648 2
11 ESO 420-13 Sy2 04 13 49.699 -32 00 25.20   13.31 13.3 12.14   ~ 85 0
12 NGC 3221 G 10 22 19.988 +21 34 10.56   14.3       ~ 127 1
13 NGC 3690 IG 11 28 31.326 +58 33 41.80   13.19 12.86     ~ 940 4
14 NGC 4194 AGN 12 14 09.615 +54 31 35.93   13.79 13.30     ~ 436 2
15 NGC 4355 Sy2 12 26 54.6206739120 -00 52 39.421212996   14.21 13.37     ~ 455 2
16 NGC 4485 GiP 12 30 31.113 +41 42 04.22 12.10 12.42 11.93 11.93   ~ 266 2
17 NGC 4490 GiP 12 30 36.368 +41 38 37.07 10.03 10.22 9.79     ~ 551 3
18 NGC 4625 GiP 12 41 52.7121819576 +41 16 26.115765780 12.74 12.92 12.35     ~ 334 2
19 IC 860 LIN 13 15 03.51 +24 37 07.8   14.8       ~ 199 0
20 NGC 5135 Sy2 13 25 44.059 -29 50 01.24   12.58 13.35 11.53 12.2 ~ 457 1
21 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4099 4
22 NGC 5394 GiP 13 58 33.6405096192 +37 27 12.732147036   13.7 13.12     ~ 190 1
23 NGC 5395 Sy2 13 58 37.9605982608 +37 25 28.161627744   13.26 12.48     ~ 206 1
24 NGC 5653 H2G 14 30 10.4187147048 +31 12 55.568509596   12.7       ~ 164 1
25 Z 49-57 GiC 15 13 13.1083645344 +07 13 32.099256084   15.5       ~ 222 1
26 NGC 5906 GiG 15 15 53.687 +56 19 43.86   11.4       ~ 724 1
27 IC 5179 EmG 22 16 09.1191653256 -36 50 37.117603752   12.29 11.89 11.38   ~ 191 1
28 NGC 7552 GiP 23 16 10.767 -42 35 05.39 11.34 11.22 10.57 10.08 11.1 ~ 530 3
29 NGC 7771 GiG 23 51 24.880 +20 06 42.57 13.42 13.08 12.25     ~ 326 4

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2022.08.12-09:37:09

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