2014ApJ...794..142G


Query : 2014ApJ...794..142G

2014ApJ...794..142G - Astrophys. J., 794, 142 (2014/October-3)

Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift.

GREVE T.R., LEONIDAKI I., XILOURIS E.M., WEISS A., ZHANG Z.-Y., VAN DER WERF P., AALTO S., ARMUS L., DIAZ-SANTOS T., EVANS A.S., FISCHER J., GAO Y., GONZALEZ-ALFONSO E., HARRIS A., HENKEL C., MEIJERINK R., NAYLOR D.A., SMITH H.A., SPAANS M., STACEY G.J., VEILLEUX S. and WALTER F.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present FIR [50-300 µm]-CO luminosity relations (i.e., log LFIR = αlog-CO_' +β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L_IR[8-1000 µm]_> 1011 L) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR-CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR-CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≃ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR-(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>104/cm3) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for this component. The global CO spectral line energy distributions, which remain highly excited from J = 6-5 up to J = 13-12, are found to be a generic feature of the (U)LIRGs in our sample, and further support the presence of this gas component.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: evolution - galaxies: formation - galaxies: ISM - galaxies: starburst - ISM: molecules

Simbad objects: 108

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Number of rows : 108
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NPM1G +40.0002 Sy2 00 08 20.3675391072 +40 37 55.922085984     16.8     ~ 44 0
2 NGC 34 Sy2 00 11 06.612 -12 06 28.33   14.14 13.52     ~ 334 0
3 NGC 253 SyG 00 47 33.134 -25 17 19.68   8.03   6.94 8.1 ~ 3164 2
4 Mrk 1502 Sy1 00 53 34.9331107632 +12 41 35.929269132   14.41 14.03     ~ 1110 1
5 MCG+12-02-001 G 00 54 03.943 +73 05 05.23   16       ~ 100 1
6 IC 1623 IG 01 07 47.2 -17 30 25   15       ~ 283 1
7 MCG-03-04-014 EmG 01 10 08.979 -16 51 09.69   15   13.96   ~ 96 0
8 ZW III 35 Sy2 01 44 30.516 +17 06 09.18   15.24 14.81     ~ 237 0
9 IC 214 G 02 14 05.586 +05 10 23.37   14.4       ~ 143 0
10 [CCM2006] SXDF850.11 G 02 17 25.117 -04 59 37.44           ~ 11 0
11 NAME HXMM01 G 02 20 16.5 -06 01 43           ~ 22 0
12 NAME SMM J02399-0136 G 02 39 51.87 -01 35 58.8       21.20   ~ 186 2
13 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.7091669408 -00 00 47.859690204 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4381 2
14 2MASX J02513583+4315117 LIN 02 51 35.8187772168 +43 15 11.772126504   18.09 17.36     ~ 54 0
15 UGC 2369 S GiP 02 54 01.80 +14 58 14.0           ~ 99 1
16 NAME SMM J030227.73+000653.5 AGN 03 02 27.8 +00 06 54   23.8 19.10   21.29 ~ 37 0
17 IRAS 03359+1523 G 03 38 47.1918750504 +15 32 53.853117504   16.3       ~ 102 0
18 2MASX J04260482+1443360 LIN 04 26 04.829 +14 43 36.01           ~ 26 0
19 NGC 1614 AGN 04 34 00.027 -08 34 44.57   14.66 13.99     ~ 644 0
20 ZW VII 31 G 05 16 46.384 +79 40 12.63   15.8       ~ 142 0
21 LEDA 17155 Sy2 05 21 01.3994605776 -25 21 45.321827832   15.47 14.75     ~ 466 0
22 SPT-S J053816-5030.8 G 05 38 16.830 -50 30 52.00           ~ 22 1
23 NGC 2623 LIN 08 38 24.016 +25 45 16.29 14.10 13.99 13.36     ~ 469 1
24 H-ATLAS J084933.4+021443 G 08 49 33.49 +02 14 44.4           ~ 30 0
25 NAME IRAS F08572+3915 NW LIN 09 00 25.364 +39 03 54.23     16.66     ~ 396 1
26 NAME SDP 17b G 09 03 02.9 -01 41 27           ~ 17 0
27 SDP 81 G 09 03 11.574 +00 39 06.55           ~ 90 0
28 H-ATLAS J090740.0-004200 G? 09 07 40.0 -00 42 00           ~ 29 0
29 H-ATLAS J091043.0-000322 G? 09 10 43.1 -00 03 21           ~ 28 0
30 HerBS 59 G 09 13 05.0 -00 53 43           ~ 31 0
31 UGC 4881 IG 09 15 55.5 +44 19 58   14.9       ~ 163 0
32 UGC 5101 Sy1 09 35 51.6045544584 +61 21 11.589382368   15.20 15.50     ~ 544 4
33 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5638 6
34 NGC 3094 G 10 01 25.9394231904 +15 46 12.175678236   13.5       ~ 110 0
35 IC 2545 IG 10 06 04.581 -33 53 05.55   15.27 14.27 14.25   ~ 101 0
36 FIRST J100645.8+483741 rG 10 06 45.874 +48 37 43.34   15.7       ~ 28 0
37 NVSS J102000+081335 rG 10 20 00.1849825704 +08 13 33.648546108   17.5       ~ 147 1
38 NGC 3256 IG 10 27 51.284 -43 54 13.55   11.83 11.33 10.62 11.9 ~ 807 2
39 NGC 3310 AGN 10 38 45.85707 +53 30 11.8940   12.45 12.15     ~ 758 1
40 NAME SMM J105151.69+572636.0 smm 10 51 51.690 +57 26 36.09   27.28   25.20 23.99 ~ 40 0
41 NAME SMM J105227.58+572512.4 G 10 52 27.58 +57 25 12.4           ~ 10 0
42 NAME SMM J105230.6+572212 G 10 52 30.717 +57 22 09.56   24.32   23.74 23.40 ~ 39 0
43 NAME SMM J10524+5724 smm 10 52 38.299 +57 24 35.76   26.45   24.90 24.21 ~ 37 0
44 NAME HLock01 G 10 57 51.1 +57 30 27           ~ 34 0
46 LEDA 33083 LIN 10 59 18.128 +24 32 34.74   15.7       ~ 257 1
47 IC 2810 AGN 11 25 45.055 +14 40 35.98   15.4       ~ 114 0
48 ESO 320-30 H2G 11 53 11.722 -39 07 48.72   13.30   11.86   ~ 168 1
49 NGC 4045 AGN 12 02 42.2505701136 +01 58 36.362990064   13.144   16.938 12.1 ~ 183 0
50 LEDA 39024 LIN 12 13 46.107 +02 48 41.50           ~ 333 1
51 6dFGS gJ122503.9-064053 LIN 12 25 03.8941406496 -06 40 52.501670544   15.53       ~ 59 0
52 NGC 4355 Sy2 12 26 54.6206739120 -00 52 39.421212996   14.21 13.37     ~ 458 2
53 AzGN 15 smm 12 35 48.64 +62 15 29.9     24.20     ~ 6 0
54 NAME SMM J123549.44+621536.8 AGN 12 35 49.43 +62 15 36.8 24.6 23.9 23.6 23.3 23.1 ~ 57 0
55 NAME SMM J123600.2+621047 QSO 12 36 00.15 +62 10 47.2 24.21 25.5874 25.35   24.6340 ~ 53 0
56 NAME SMM J123606.9+621021 AGN 12 36 06.87 +62 10 21.5 26.74 27.3812 25.57 24.4 24.5585 ~ 52 0
57 NAME SMM J123635+621237 EmG 12 36 34.52 +62 12 41.0 25.26 23.8632 24.53 23.18 22.7131 ~ 113 0
58 NAME SMM J123652+621225 G 12 36 51.76 +62 12 21.4 24.2 23.4 22.3 22.0 25.80 ~ 187 1
59 NAME SMM J123711+622212 AGN 12 37 11.92 +62 22 12.1   27.1786 25.185   24.4196 ~ 185 0
60 Mrk 231 Sy1 12 56 14.2341182928 +56 52 25.238373852   14.68 13.84     ~ 1914 3
61 ESO 507-70 SyG 13 02 52.3177169808 -23 55 17.932558692   14.77 14.78 13.24   ~ 111 0
62 NAME SSA 13-332 QSO 13 12 01.1 +42 42 08   25.2     23.10 ~ 39 0
63 NGC 5020 G 13 12 39.873 +12 35 59.04   13.4       ~ 89 0
64 2MASX J13150638-5509225 Sy2 13 15 06.383 -55 09 22.60   17.3       ~ 127 0
65 IC 883 SBG 13 20 35.380 +34 08 21.84   14.8       ~ 387 1
66 NGC 5104 rG 13 21 23.115 +00 20 33.38   14.5   13.227   ~ 141 0
67 NGC 5135 Sy2 13 25 44.059 -29 50 01.24   12.58 13.35 11.53 12.2 ~ 459 1
68 ESO 173-15 G 13 27 23.774 -57 29 22.14   14.9   14.3 13.7 ~ 69 1
69 NGC 5256 PaG 13 38 17.5 +48 16 37   14.1 13.42     ~ 418 1
70 Mrk 273 Sy2 13 44 42.1883001096 +55 53 13.596220932   15.68 14.91     ~ 870 3
71 UGC 8739 GiG 13 49 13.912 +35 15 27.04   14.7       ~ 108 1
72 NGC 5394 GiP 13 58 33.6405096192 +37 27 12.732147036   13.7 13.12     ~ 190 1
73 NAME SMM J14009+0252 G 14 00 57.538 +02 52 49.85           ~ 43 0
74 NAME SMM J14011+0252 GiC 14 01 04.95 +02 52 24.0           ~ 152 1
75 NAME SMM J140104.96+025223.5 G 14 01 04.96 +02 52 23.5           ~ 4 0
76 NGC 5433 rG 14 02 36.065 +32 30 37.54   14.0       ~ 83 1
77 Mrk 1490 AGN 14 19 43.2275567784 +49 14 12.014867004   15.4       ~ 116 0
78 NAME G15.v2.779 G 14 24 13.9 +02 23 04           ~ 47 0
79 LEDA 52270 Sy1 14 37 38.2867288488 -15 00 24.087592692   16.58 16.40     ~ 260 1
80 Z 49-57 GiC 15 13 13.1083645344 +07 13 32.099256084   15.5       ~ 223 1
81 NAME IRAS F15163+4255 NW SyG 15 18 06.138 +42 44 45.03   15.0 15     ~ 201 1
82 NGC 5929 Sy1 15 26 06.1564333536 +41 40 14.384294616   13.0 14.00     ~ 431 0
83 NGC 5930 GiP 15 26 07.9964334517 +41 40 33.691556640   13.0       ~ 421 0
84 IC 4553 SyG 15 34 57.22396 +23 30 11.6084   14.76 13.88     ~ 2848 4
85 NGC 5990 Sy2 15 46 16.3702704024 +02 24 55.693907820   13.1       ~ 132 1
86 NGC 6090 PaG 16 11 40.3 +52 27 21   14.0       ~ 414 2
87 Z 52-37 G 16 30 56.539 +04 04 58.36   14.9       ~ 95 1
88 [KBV2006] SMM J163555.2+661150 smm 16 35 55.2 +66 11 50           ~ 8 0
89 NAME SMM J163631.47+405546.9 AGN 16 36 31.4 +40 55 47   24.9       ~ 19 0
90 NAME SMM J163650.43+405734.5 AGN 16 36 50.5 +40 57 34   23.3 23.30   21.83 ~ 83 0
91 NAME SMM J16366+4105 AGN 16 36 58.2 +41 05 24   26.0     24.48 ~ 52 0
92 NAME SMM J16371+4053 AGN 16 37 06.5 +40 53 14         23.20 ~ 28 0
93 NGC 6240 Sy2 16 52 58.861 +02 24 03.55   14.31 13.37     ~ 1573 2
94 NAME HFLS 3 G 17 06 47.8 +58 46 23           ~ 123 0
95 LEDA 59896 G 17 14 20.4740967144 +53 10 31.495916892           ~ 86 0
96 LEDA 60189 LIN 17 23 21.943 -00 17 00.96   15.1       ~ 400 0
97 IC 4687 AGN 18 13 39.829 -57 43 31.25   14.35 14.3 12.78   ~ 129 1
98 LEDA 84885 EmG 18 32 41.177 -34 11 27.46   15.63   13.66   ~ 116 0
99 LEDA 90339 G 19 48 15.7 +09 52 05           ~ 34 0
100 2MASX J20572362+1707445 PaG 20 57 23.628 +17 07 44.60   15.2       ~ 153 0
101 NAME Eyelash LeG 21 35 11.60 -01 02 52.0           ~ 210 0
102 NAME South America H2G 22 51 49.307 -17 52 23.96   16.97       ~ 308 3
103 NGC 7469 Sy1 23 03 15.674 +08 52 25.28 12.60 13.00 12.34     ~ 2008 3
104 NGC 7552 GiP 23 16 10.767 -42 35 05.39 11.34 11.22 10.57 10.08 11.1 ~ 531 3
105 SPT-S J233227-5358.5 G 23 32 26.50 -53 58 39.8           ~ 8 1
106 LEDA 90429 SyG 23 39 01.274 +36 21 08.77   16.17       ~ 205 1
107 NGC 7771 GiG 23 51 24.880 +20 06 42.57 13.42 13.08 12.25     ~ 326 4
108 Mrk 331 GiP 23 51 26.731 +20 35 10.22   14.9       ~ 221 0

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2022.10.07-03:53:58

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