2013ApJ...772..135Z


Query : 2013ApJ...772..135Z

2013ApJ...772..135Z - Astrophys. J., 772, 135 (2013/August-1)

On the origin of lopsidedness in galaxies as determined from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G).

ZARITSKY D., SALO H., LAURIKAINEN E., ELMEGREEN D., ATHANASSOULA E., BOSMA A., COMERON S., ERROZ-FERRER S., ELMEGREEN B., GADOTTI D.A., GIL DE PAZ A., HINZ J.L., HO L.C., HOLWERDA B.W., KIM T., KNAPEN J.H., LAINE J., LAINE S., MADORE B.F., MEIDT S., MENENDEZ-DELMESTRE K., MIZUSAWA T., MUNOZ-MATEOS J.C., REGAN M.W., SEIBERT M. and SHETH K.

Abstract (from CDS):

We study the m = 1 distortions (lopsidedness) in the stellar components of 167 nearby galaxies that span a wide range of morphologies and luminosities. We confirm the previous findings of (1) a high incidence of lopsidedness in the stellar distributions, (2) increasing lopsidedness as a function of radius out to at least 3.5 exponential scale lengths, and (3) greater lopsidedness, over these radii, for galaxies of later type and lower surface brightness. Additionally, the magnitude of the lopsidedness (1) correlates with the character of the spiral arms (stronger arm patterns occur in galaxies with less lopsidedness), (2) is not correlated with the presence or absence of a bar, or the strength of the bar when one is present, (3) is inversely correlated to the stellar mass fraction, f*, within one radial scale length, and (4) correlates directly with f* measured within the radial range over which we measure lopsidedness. We interpret these findings to mean that lopsidedness is a generic feature of galaxies and does not, generally, depend on a rare event, such as a direct accretion of a satellite galaxy onto the disk of the parent galaxy. While lopsidedness may be caused by several phenomena, moderate lopsidedness ( < A1 > i+ < A1 > o)/2 < 0.3) is likely to reflect halo asymmetries to which the disk responds or a gravitationally self-generated mode. We hypothesize that the magnitude of the stellar response depends both on how centrally concentrated the stars are with respect to the dark matter and whether there are enough stars in the region of the lopsidedness that self-gravity is dynamically important.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: fundamental parameters - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: structure

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/772/135): table1.dat>

Simbad objects: 173

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Number of rows : 173
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 UGC 12893 GiG 00 00 28.479 +17 13 13.09   15.3       ~ 32 0
2 UGC 99 G 00 10 40.80 +13 42 33.8   16.0       ~ 26 0
3 ESO 410-18 GiG 00 34 10.7 -30 46 24   14.04   13.36 14.2 ~ 37 0
4 NGC 244 bCG 00 45 46.4165696064 -15 35 48.392605716   14.1   13.04 13.4 ~ 80 0
5 NGC 255 GiG 00 47 47.309 -11 28 07.31   12.5   11.82 12.6 ~ 91 0
6 NGC 275 GiP 00 51 04.8 -07 03 59   12.51   12.27   ~ 85 0
7 NGC 428 AGN 01 12 55.709 +00 58 53.69   12.1   12.0 12.1 ~ 222 0
8 NGC 474 GiP 01 20 06.6870520512 +03 24 55.861973100 12.75 12.37 11.51 11.42 10.56 ~ 338 1
9 UGC 1014 GiC 01 26 23.561 +06 16 40.57   15.20       ~ 46 0
10 NGC 600 EmG 01 33 05.292 -07 18 41.06   13.1   13.0 12.9 ~ 80 0
11 NGC 680 GiP 01 49 47.2923018240 +21 58 15.142526652   13.0       ~ 138 0
12 NAME Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy Sy1 01 51 06.3 -44 26 41   13.48 13.2 12.69   ~ 496 2
13 NGC 723 EmG 01 53 45.6879520032 -23 45 28.036391832   13.25   12.10 13.1 ~ 50 0
14 NGC 986 EmG 02 33 34.3087856832 -39 02 42.128176704 11.72 11.74 10.91 10.10 11.3 ~ 177 1
15 NGC 991 LSB 02 35 32.6841762360 -07 09 15.862909536   12.36   12.7 12.6 ~ 145 1
16 NGC 1015 G 02 38 11.5517163624 -01 19 07.598590248   12.8   12.4 12.5 ~ 104 0
17 NGC 1022 GiG 02 38 32.703 -06 40 38.60 12.33 12.09 11.34     ~ 198 1
18 IC 1826 EmG 02 39 03.5286574368 -27 26 34.947526632   12.86   11.94 12.8 ~ 62 0
19 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.7091669408 -00 00 47.859690204 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4336 2
20 UGCA 52 G 03 07 04.5 -14 00 15   16.02   14.2 14.1 ~ 25 0
21 MCG-01-09-021 G 03 14 38.2 -04 46 28   13.9   14.1 14.0 ~ 42 0
22 NGC 1269 GiG 03 17 18.5785534752 -41 06 28.628735184 9.85 9.83 8.81 8.72   ~ 395 1
23 NGC 1313 G 03 18 16.046 -66 29 53.74   10.06 10.0 9.40 10.4 ~ 650 2
24 NGC 1302 GiG 03 19 51.2026512864 -26 03 37.946814660   11.43   9.99 10.8 ~ 139 0
25 NGC 1306 EmG 03 21 02.9690467944 -25 30 44.706113856   13.62   12.64 13.3 ~ 42 0
26 NGC 1309 GiG 03 22 06.5548977432 -15 23 59.791692912   12.08   12.5 11.7 ~ 203 0
27 MCG-01-09-031 H2G 03 22 17.4749385288 -07 05 26.475025416   13.5       ~ 48 1
28 ESO 548-10 GiP 03 24 48.5 -21 20 10   13.33 12.83 12.52 13.1 ~ 59 0
29 NGC 1341 EmG 03 27 58.3983347688 -37 09 00.271891836   12.86   11.82   ~ 74 0
30 NGC 1338 G 03 28 54.5403533328 -12 09 11.993328252   13.72       ~ 41 0
31 NGC 1347 IG 03 29 41.8 -22 16 44   13.74   12.97   ~ 47 0
32 NAME Eridanus ClG GrG 03 38 32.00 -22 18 51.0           ~ 160 0
33 IC 1993 GiG 03 47 04.8369103704 -33 42 35.877997728   12.50   11.16 11.7 ~ 79 0
34 NGC 1493 GiP 03 57 27.4270810416 -46 12 38.513195316   11.88   11.01 11.6 ~ 123 0
35 NGC 1510 GiP 04 03 32.640 -43 24 00.58 14.23 13.63 13.24 13.09   ~ 181 1
36 NGC 1533 GiG 04 09 51.8356041744 -56 07 06.410207352   11.77 10.92 10.27 11.0 ~ 188 0
37 ESO 359-31 G 04 13 09.61 -34 25 34.8   14.56   14.29   ~ 26 0
38 IC 2056 GiG 04 16 24.5103101928 -60 12 24.417665424   12.49   11.52   ~ 72 0
39 IC 2058 EmG 04 17 54.3720552624 -55 55 57.738342360   13.90   12.94 13.2 ~ 88 2
40 NGC 1640 G 04 42 14.5058689872 -20 26 05.190613476   12.51 11.72 11.22 12.1 ~ 110 0
41 NGC 1672 SyG 04 45 42.552 -59 14 50.68 10.29 10.53 9.68 9.53 10.2 ~ 358 1
42 NGC 1703 GiG 04 52 52.145 -59 44 31.98   12.31   11.43 11.6 ~ 82 0
43 ESO 485-21 G 04 52 53.0 -25 14 48   13.27 12.76 12.50 13.0 ~ 43 0
44 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16065 1
45 NGC 2500 LSB 08 01 53.1717201720 +50 44 13.602483780 11.98 12.20 11.62 11.34 10.85 ~ 184 1
46 UGC 4151 G 08 04 18.8057158368 +77 48 59.878523196   13.1       ~ 36 0
47 NGC 2681 LIN 08 53 32.7183058512 +51 18 49.159212120 11.40 11.09 10.29     ~ 311 1
48 NGC 2655 LIN 08 55 37.731 +78 13 23.10   12.03 11.08     ~ 274 1
49 NGC 2750 GiP 09 05 47.893 +25 26 14.51   12.7       ~ 101 0
50 NGC 2776 AGN 09 12 14.531 +44 57 17.62   12.249 11.693 11.285 10.77 ~ 158 0
51 NGC 2893 G 09 30 16.9542533472 +29 32 23.895492828   13.6 13.11     ~ 118 1
52 MCG-01-25-015 LSB 09 40 31.036 -08 56 36.96   13.8   13.8 14.2 ~ 28 0
53 UGCA 175 G 09 43 36.178 -05 54 45.08   13.3   13.4 13.4 ~ 35 0
54 NGC 3065 GiP 10 01 55.2298337568 +72 10 13.113502068   14.17 13.19     ~ 116 0
55 NGC 3066 GiP 10 02 10.8998195712 +72 07 30.855522000   12.8       ~ 76 0
56 NGC 3177 AGN 10 16 34.1454628296 +21 07 23.000346984   12.8       ~ 136 0
57 NAME Great Attractor SCG 10 32 -46.0           ~ 518 0
58 NGC 3310 AGN 10 38 45.85707 +53 30 11.8940   12.45 12.15     ~ 755 1
59 NGC 3344 EmG 10 43 31.150 +24 55 19.99 10.38 10.54 9.86 9.71   ~ 371 1
60 UGCA 217 EmG 10 43 36.292 -09 51 22.58   13.6   13.7 14.0 ~ 37 0
61 UGC 5889 GiP 10 47 22.4012897592 +14 04 16.697296020 14.17 14.31 13.61 13.51   ~ 129 1
62 NGC 3380 GiG 10 48 12.1848022440 +28 36 06.485019660   13.6       ~ 89 1
63 NGC 3364 GiG 10 48 29.8068466920 +72 25 29.982374796   13.8       ~ 53 0
64 NGC 3445 GiP 10 54 35.5131399552 +56 59 26.919652956 12.61 12.90 12.55     ~ 126 1
65 NGC 3504 LIN 11 03 11.191 +27 58 20.77   13.48 12.93     ~ 504 2
66 NGC 3507 GiP 11 03 25.3619733360 +18 08 07.607343732   11.4       ~ 170 0
67 IC 2627 EmG 11 09 53.3868003696 -23 43 33.192730524   12.67   11.36 11.9 ~ 102 0
68 UGC 6249 G 11 13 20.743 +59 54 30.01   14.6       ~ 37 0
69 NGC 3596 H2G 11 15 06.2081129496 +14 47 13.284196332   12.01 11.49 10.99 10.45 ~ 186 0
70 NGC 3608 LIN 11 16 58.967 +18 08 54.71   11.7       ~ 493 0
71 UGC 6320 GiP 11 18 17.238 +18 50 49.00   13.6       ~ 61 0
72 NGC 3619 GiG 11 19 21.5781353400 +57 45 28.018459368   12.6       ~ 160 0
73 NGC 3637 GiP 11 20 39.5662467840 -10 15 26.289737460   13   11.97   ~ 58 0
74 NGC 3642 LIN 11 22 17.9010437568 +59 04 28.275641436   14.86 14.04     ~ 196 0
75 NGC 3655 Sy2 11 22 54.6356867928 +16 35 24.235700100   12.575 11.904 11.366 10.732 ~ 167 0
76 NGC 3718 GiP 11 32 34.8571790688 +53 04 04.520222040   11.35 10.61     ~ 359 1
77 NGC 3730 G 11 34 37.5480868656 -09 38 47.296996548   15   13.80   ~ 20 0
78 NGC 3892 GiG 11 48 01.0277916720 -10 57 43.632054432   12.21   10.99   ~ 65 0
79 ESO 440-11 G 11 48 45.4 -28 17 35   12.98   12.00 12.1 ~ 60 1
80 NGC 3906 G 11 49 40.496 +48 25 33.46   14.1       ~ 89 0
81 NGC 3913 G 11 50 38.9407040280 +55 21 13.894641396   14.2       ~ 146 0
82 NGC 3928 AGN 11 51 47.6194275264 +48 40 59.261680020   13.1       ~ 168 0
83 NGC 3938 GiG 11 52 49.4335936248 +44 07 14.697085116 10.80 10.90 10.38     ~ 495 1
84 IC 749 GiP 11 58 34.0447608696 +42 44 02.528915820   13.4 12.52     ~ 126 0
85 NGC 4035 G 12 00 29.213 -15 56 54.38   13.7   13.04 13.5 ~ 30 0
86 NGC 4032 EmG 12 00 32.8335960456 +20 04 25.964376132   12.7       ~ 98 0
87 NGC 4041 SyG 12 02 12.2376697152 +62 08 14.096124312   11.6       ~ 238 1
88 NGC 4136 GiG 12 09 17.7035859024 +29 55 39.419783832   11.69       ~ 217 1
89 NGC 4203 LIN 12 15 05.0549203560 +33 11 50.383965120   12.98 11.99     ~ 475 2
90 NGC 4228 SBG 12 15 39.174 +36 19 36.80 10.63 10.30 9.93 9.74   ~ 913 1
91 NGC 4262 GiG 12 19 30.5694336288 +14 52 39.517143276 13.00 12.49 11.55     ~ 344 1
92 NGC 4267 GiG 12 19 45.2735790120 +12 47 53.704780368   12.4       ~ 236 0
93 NGC 4283 GiG 12 20 20.7691223880 +29 18 39.154727556 13.47 13.00 12.07     ~ 192 1
94 NGC 4299 GiP 12 21 40.548 +11 29 59.74   12.8       ~ 233 0
95 M 61 Sy2 12 21 54.9282582888 +04 28 25.597367184 10.07 10.18 9.65     ~ 939 2
96 NGC 4314 LIN 12 22 32.0223000912 +29 53 43.814812200 11.72 11.43 10.58     ~ 468 1
97 NGC 4344 bCG 12 23 37.4496602016 +17 32 27.247188120   13.34       ~ 108 1
98 UGC 7490 G 12 24 24.83 +70 20 02.9 13.93 13.38 12.86 12.60   ~ 62 0
99 NGC 4369 GiG 12 24 36.204 +39 22 58.73   12.3       ~ 183 1
100 M 84 Sy2 12 25 03.74333 +12 53 13.1393 12.67 12.09 10.49     ~ 1698 2
101 NGC 4412 Sy2 12 26 36.0823099632 +03 57 52.911389772   13.2       ~ 140 0
102 NGC 4457 LIN 12 28 59.0252479200 +03 34 14.215556928   11.9       ~ 286 0
103 NGC 4492 GiG 12 30 59.7099543696 +08 04 40.424214828   14.1       ~ 124 0
104 NGC 4494 GiP 12 31 24.0391348536 +25 46 30.071664120   10.55 9.74     ~ 460 0
105 NGC 4505 GiP 12 31 39.2222392512 +03 56 21.641352828   11.71       ~ 331 0
106 NGC 4540 GiG 12 34 50.8741239840 +15 33 06.116283900   12.5       ~ 183 1
107 NGC 4561 GiG 12 36 08.137 +19 19 21.32   12.7       ~ 179 0
108 NGC 4625 GiP 12 41 52.7121819576 +41 16 26.115765780 12.74 12.92 12.35     ~ 334 2
109 NGC 4900 EmG 13 00 39.1193785512 +02 30 05.154593868   12.8       ~ 241 0
110 UGC 8153 GiP 13 03 05.913 +03 59 30.81   15.2       ~ 41 0
111 ESO 443-69 G 13 06 53.0 -28 33 23   13.13   12.31 12.9 ~ 45 0
112 ESO 576-17 G 13 15 12.781 -17 58 00.67   14.75   13.99 14.2 ~ 37 0
113 NGC 5068 G 13 18 54.807 -21 02 20.76 11.24 10.53 10.01 9.78 10.1 ~ 250 0
114 NGC 5101 G 13 21 46.242 -27 25 49.87   11.26 10.47 9.87 10.5 ~ 175 0
115 NGC 5134 EmG 13 25 18.5250908808 -21 08 03.066281880   12.11   10.77 11.3 ~ 99 0
116 ESO 509-26 GiC 13 28 24.5 -27 34 10   15.22   14.56   ~ 30 0
117 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4080 4
118 UGCA 364 G 13 34 39.9 -12 19 52   17.82   15.30   ~ 19 0
119 UGC 8588 G 13 35 42.719 +45 55 46.62   15.3       ~ 32 0
120 UGC 8597 GiG 13 36 15.710 +46 12 00.07   15.2       ~ 39 0
121 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.91920 -29 51 56.7400 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2398 2
122 UGCA 367 GiG 13 37 04.8641017224 -11 49 47.320889880   13.6   13.45 13.6 ~ 27 0
123 NGC 5247 GiG 13 38 03.0183262176 -17 53 02.645511252   10.77   9.96 10.5 ~ 211 0
124 MCG-02-35-010 G 13 38 10.3 -09 48 04   12.5   12.05 12.6 ~ 57 0
125 NGC 5354 LIN 13 53 26.7262413240 +40 18 09.928163700   12.3   10.64   ~ 153 0
126 NGC 5375 LIN 13 56 56.0072063832 +29 09 51.653612304   12.78 12.08 11.65 11.65 ~ 118 1
127 M 101 GiP 14 03 12.583 +54 20 55.50   8.46 7.86 7.76   ~ 2711 2
128 NGC 5427 GiP 14 03 26.0408044536 -06 01 50.682790236   14.67 13.96 11.54   ~ 280 0
129 NGC 5468 GiP 14 06 34.8905851004 -05 27 10.718829772   12.1   11.58 12.2 ~ 135 0
130 NGC 5476 GiG 14 08 08.5052076024 -06 05 31.895060460   13.2   12.46 13.0 ~ 41 0
131 NGC 5534 EmG 14 17 40.2662736312 -07 25 02.573630076   13.6   13.4 12.7 ~ 84 0
132 NGC 5600 GiG 14 23 49.541 +14 38 19.45   11.9       ~ 88 0
133 UGC 9240 G 14 24 43.0755746952 +44 31 31.759938264 14.24 13.54 13.17 13.07   ~ 189 0
134 NGC 5636 GiP 14 29 39.0108829368 +03 15 58.704040548   13.70       ~ 61 1
135 NGC 5660 GiG 14 29 49.8189307200 +49 37 21.609211800   12.2       ~ 110 0
136 NGC 5693 GiP 14 36 11.151 +48 35 04.31   14.5       ~ 70 0
137 NGC 5701 GiG 14 39 11.0751915840 +05 21 48.493104264 12.03 11.76 10.88     ~ 231 1
138 NGC 5713 GiP 14 40 11.528 -00 17 21.16 11.88 11.84 11.20     ~ 372 2
139 UGC 9469 LSB 14 41 44.366 -01 48 25.20   15.37   14.68 15.2 ~ 36 0
140 NGC 5768 EmG 14 52 07.9533849360 -02 31 47.096307192   14.20   13.2 13.5 ~ 97 0
141 UGC 9663 G 15 01 13.659 +52 35 47.09   15.2       ~ 37 0
142 UGC 9661 GiG 15 02 03.534 +01 50 28.01   14.61   12.93   ~ 48 1
143 UGC 9730 G 15 04 02.970 +77 38 03.40   15.70       ~ 36 0
144 NGC 5892 EmG 15 13 48.1988288712 -15 27 49.558062960   12.0   11.80 12.3 ~ 61 0
145 NGC 5953 GiP 15 34 32.402 +15 11 37.80   13.23 12.45     ~ 354 1
146 NGC 5958 GiG 15 34 49.1365851408 +28 39 18.883906020   13.2       ~ 45 0
147 NGC 5956 LIN 15 34 58.5343014096 +11 45 00.936150696   13.3       ~ 81 0
148 NGC 5957 Sy2 15 35 23.2175160360 +12 02 51.281778048   13.3       ~ 121 0
149 UGC 10020 G 15 45 44.491 +20 33 38.51   14.5       ~ 44 0
150 NGC 6012 G 15 54 13.9048137432 +14 36 04.278408300   13.209 12.420 11.870 11.195 ~ 125 0
151 NGC 6217 AGN 16 32 39.2100852960 +78 11 53.487076092   14.37 13.88     ~ 290 0
152 NGC 6412 GiG 17 29 37.522 +75 42 15.59   12.40       ~ 136 0
153 ESO 285-5 G 20 23 07.061 -43 52 06.79 13.95 14.19 13.63 13.43 13.9 ~ 38 1
154 ESO 26-1 G 20 25 02.1931067016 -81 34 30.572627340   14.59   13.23 13.3 ~ 47 0
155 ESO 234-49 G 20 35 18.061 -49 51 55.79   13.16 13.54 12.18 13.2 ~ 38 0
156 IC 5069 G 21 00 12.8 -71 48 42   14.16   13.42 14.0 ~ 29 0
157 ESO 341-32 G 21 03 33.6 -39 26 47   13.74   13.00 13.5 ~ 33 0
158 NGC 7051 EmG 21 19 51.3311513352 -08 46 58.759818636   14   12.54   ~ 44 0
159 NGC 7091 G 21 34 07.7090722560 -36 39 21.968524008   13.43   12.27 13.2 ~ 37 0
160 ESO 287-37 G 21 34 32.022 -44 18 53.20   13.72   12.77 13.3 ~ 40 0
161 IC 1438 EmG 22 16 29.0893049880 -21 25 50.454727752   12.63   11.57   ~ 81 0
162 MCG-01-57-016 IG 22 36 35.0 -02 54 24   13.1   13.2 13.2 ~ 54 0
163 ESO 345-46 G 22 43 15.7 -39 52 03   13.22   12.62 13.3 ~ 38 0
164 NGC 7371 G 22 46 03.7440344328 -11 00 04.331303028   12.5   11.74 12.1 ~ 86 0
165 NGC 7421 GiG 22 56 54.3533970816 -37 20 50.437978152 12.61 12.64 11.93 11.71 12.1 ~ 115 1
166 NGC 7424 GiG 22 57 18.3924511080 -41 04 14.124670032   10.88 10.38 10.02 10.9 ~ 206 0
167 NGC 7437 LSB 22 58 10.049 +14 18 32.46   14.4       ~ 62 0
168 NGC 7552 GiP 23 16 10.767 -42 35 05.39 11.34 11.22 10.57 10.08 11.1 ~ 529 3
169 NGC 7625 IG 23 20 30.132 +17 13 32.16 13.31 13.23 11.98 11.25   ~ 254 0
170 ESO 407-18 G 23 26 27.52 -32 23 19.5 15.34 14.71 14.23 14.03   ~ 148 0
171 IC 5325 GiG 23 28 43.4210245680 -41 19 59.690746920 11.80 11.89 11.27 10.73 11.5 ~ 100 1
172 IC 5332 GiG 23 34 27.488 -36 06 03.89 11.59 11.27 10.72 10.50 11.2 ~ 140 0
173 NGC 7742 GiP 23 44 15.7534099368 +10 46 01.533226872   12.5       ~ 208 0

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2022.07.03-19:03:11

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