2013ApJ...771..112A


Query : 2013ApJ...771..112A

2013ApJ...771..112A - Astrophys. J., 771, 112 (2013/July-2)

Dusty OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Extragalactic disks or examples of the Pleiades phenomenon?

ADAMS J.J., SIMON J.D., BOLATTO A.D., SLOAN G.C., SANDSTROM K.M., SCHMIEDEKE A., VAN LOON J.Th., OLIVEIRA J.M. and KELLER L.D.

Abstract (from CDS):

We use mid-infrared Spitzer spectroscopy and far-infrared Herschel photometry for a sample of 20 main sequence O9-B2 stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with strong 24 µm excesses to investigate the origin of the mid-IR emission. Either debris disks around the stars or illuminated patches of dense interstellar medium (ISM) can cause such mid-IR emission. In a companion paper, Paper I, we use optical spectroscopy to show that it is unlikely for any of these sources to be classical Be stars or Herbig Ae/Be stars. We focus our analysis on debris disks and cirrus hot spots. The local, prototype objects for these models are the debris disk around Vega and the heated dust cloud surrounding the stars in the Pleiades, also known as a cirrus hot spot. These two cases predict different dust masses, radii, origins, and structures, but the cleanest classification tools are lost by the poor physical resolution at the distance of the SMC. We also consider transition disks, which would have observable properties similar to debris disks. We begin classification by measuring angular extent in the highest resolution mid-IR images available. We find 3 out of 20 stars to be significantly extended, establishing them as cirrus hot spots. We then fit the IR spectral energy distributions to determine dust temperatures and masses. Analysis yields minimum grain sizes, thermal equilibrium distances, and the resultant dust mass estimates. We find the dust masses in the SMC stars to be larger than for any known debris disks. The difference in inferred properties is driven by the SMC stars being hotter and more luminous than known debris disk hosts and not in any directly observed dust properties, so this evidence against the debris disk hypothesis is circumstantial. Finally, we created a local comparison sample of bright mid-IR OB stars in the Milky Way (MW) by cross-matching the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Hipparcos catalogs. We find that of the thousands of nearby ( ≤ 1 kpc) hot stars in the MW that show a mid-IR excess, only a small fraction (few percent) match the high mid-IR luminosities of the SMC stars. All such local stars in the appropriate luminosity range that can be unambiguously classified are young stars with optical emission lines or are spatially resolved by WISE with sizes too large to be plausible debris disk candidates. We conclude that the very strong mid-IR flux excesses are most likely explained as cirrus hot spots, although we cannot rigorously rule out that a small fraction of the sample is made up of debris disks or transition disks. We present suggestive evidence that bow-shock heating around runaway stars may be a contributing mechanism to the interstellar emission. These sources, interpreted as cirrus hot spots, offer a new localized probe of diffuse interstellar dust in a low metallicity environment.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): dust, extinction - galaxies: individual: SMC - galaxies: ISM - infrared: stars - ISM: clouds - Local Group

Simbad objects: 156

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Number of rows : 156
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 HD 627 ** 00 10 46.3658992392 +58 46 10.266098304   8.37 8.25     B7V 44 1
2 BD+70 22 * 00 31 17.4054041376 +71 07 19.207323480   9.57 9.33     B8 11 0
3 HD 3264 SB* 00 36 15.4574389008 +48 33 20.744162604   7.48 7.52     B2V 22 0
4 [M2002] SMC 5822 * 00 45 37.4926928784 -73 12 36.236435616   14.67 14.74     O9 4 0
5 2dFS 5009 * 00 46 55.9213942080 -73 04 52.482724968 14.28 15.06 15.14   15.41 B0(V) 5 0
6 [SBV2013] B11 * 00 46 57.3497535768 -73 18 08.784424152           ~ 3 0
7 [SBV2013] B14 * 00 47 19.0236099024 -73 07 10.920966744           B0-B2 3 0
8 2dFS 5016 * 00 47 42.8548642800 -73 00 09.558259848   14.15 14.25     B1-2(II) 6 0
9 2dFS 663 EB* 00 47 47.9870571168 -73 04 30.936911988 14.43 15.41 15.47   15.77 B1-5(III) 6 0
10 OGLE SMC-SC4 159849 EB* 00 47 52.2759834624 -73 21 21.821537988     15.245   15.383 B0-B2 6 0
11 [M2002] SMC 10129 * 00 48 09.765 -73 24 13.00   13.87 14.01     B0 6 0
12 [SBV2013] B34 * 00 48 30.060 -73 18 09.38           B0 3 0
13 2dFS 846 Em* 00 52 10.8341254656 -72 41 19.162045896 14.28 15.07 15.20   15.40 B1-5(III) 6 0
14 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 10381 1
15 [M2002] SMC 25387 * 00 53 00.2390419176 -72 40 27.450281640   14.08 14.30     B0 4 0
16 OGLE SMC-SC6 311225 EB* 00 54 02.0146117104 -72 42 22.020465564 14.20 15.04 15.22   15.49 B0+B0.5/2 13 0
17 Cl* NGC 330 ELS 57 * 00 54 54.5881518192 -72 32 09.900982644 14.57 15.63 15.81   16.05 B0.5V 9 0
18 [M2002] SMC 32159 * 00 55 03.3428861640 -72 55 21.674288820   14.39 14.56     O9 4 0
19 MOA J005611.6-721824 EB* 00 56 11.6020060296 -72 18 24.176800116     14.7 14.92 15.261 ~ 9 0
20 AzV 216 EB* 00 58 59.1397025928 -72 44 34.125224352 13.11 14.15 14.32 14.49 14.56 B0IIw 35 0
21 [M2002] SMC 50031 * 01 00 55.2187643400 -72 08 04.367263884           B0 3 0
22 [M2002] SMC 54281 * 01 02 41.6381515392 -72 00 36.254830536           B1 3 0
23 [M2002] SMC 55094 * 01 03 00.1181902872 -72 27 38.150235036   14.67 14.84 15.01   B0 4 0
24 [M2002] SMC 55634 * 01 03 12.2905401816 -72 04 45.162715728           B0 3 0
25 [M2002] SMC 60439 * 01 04 52.9717372632 -71 54 49.176745812   13.73 13.94     B0 8 0
26 [M2002] SMC 67470 Em* 01 08 12.0284308872 -71 58 33.328973856   14.83 15.01     OBe? 4 0
27 [M2002] SMC 77248 * 01 16 47.6968470528 -73 08 39.449836032           B0 3 0
28 HD 9186 * 01 32 29.9338568424 +67 57 40.274545032   8.30 8.25     B9 14 0
29 HD 15629 Y*O 02 33 20.5873992264 +61 31 18.188762844 8.23 8.85 8.42     O4.5V((fc)) 230 0
30 HD 17443 * 02 51 32.7706770144 +67 48 54.157444632   9.04 8.75     B9V 38 2
31 HD 17706 ** 02 53 40.4905315272 +64 27 07.142055444   6.312 6.408 7.60   B5IV 31 0
32 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 6418 1
33 HD 20798 * 03 24 14.1861630480 +61 32 18.859370028 8.06 8.58 8.39     B2III-IV 41 2
34 HD 20898 V* 03 25 16.2611981232 +60 29 01.376565972 9.619 8.36 8.00     B2III 48 1
35 * eps Eri BY* 03 32 55.8444911587 -09 27 29.739493865 5.19 4.61 3.73 3.00 2.54 K2V 1819 1
36 HD 281159 Y*O 03 44 34.1873929 +32 09 46.137563 9.19 9.21 8.53 8.85 7.850 B5V 213 0
37 Cl Melotte 22 OpC 03 46 24 +24 06.8           ~ 3231 0
38 HD 237204 bC? 04 00 23.2815894096 +56 54 05.757564996 10.493 9.40 9.18     B0.5V 40 0
39 HD 26676 * 04 13 34.5706402104 +10 12 44.918270316   6.268 6.249     B8V 96 1
40 HD 232987 * 04 40 44.3942214960 +52 37 00.255891504   9.21 9.08     B3V 16 0
41 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 4015 0
42 HD 270754 s*b 04 47 04.4509965192 -67 06 53.121123648 10.351 11.219 11.26   10.992 B1.5Ia 66 0
43 HD 269006 s*b 05 02 07.3942092168 -71 20 13.116800076 9.93 10.60 10.55 10.43 10.38 LBV 244 0
44 * eta Aur PM* 05 06 30.8933734 +41 14 04.112721 2.33 3.00 3.18 3.23 3.40 B3V 369 0
45 HD 33002 * 05 10 07.7053215360 +53 42 35.236488636   7.52 7.48     B9 14 0
46 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16265 1
47 HD 35424 * 05 26 24.8602259856 +39 38 47.576001660   8.31 8.25     B8 9 0
48 HD 36629 Y*O 05 32 57.0824474232 -04 33 59.339585016 7.01 7.67 7.65 7.53 7.53 B2V 177 0
49 HD 36546 * 05 33 30.7586857560 +24 37 43.728519504   7.02 6.95   6.90 B8 36 0
50 * c Ori Y*O 05 35 23.16427 -04 50 18.0881 3.46 4.40 4.59 4.67 4.85 B1V+? 208 0
51 * sig Ori Y*O 05 38 44.7653828520 -02 36 00.283179888 2.54 3.58 3.79 3.87 4.11 O9.5V+B0.2V(n) 776 0
52 * sig Ori D Y*O 05 38 45.6253355112 -02 35 58.894678824 5.7 6.51 6.69   6.98 B2V 54 0
53 HD 37674 * 05 40 13.5394904328 -01 27 45.249257592   7.61 7.68     B5V(n) 51 1
54 V* V901 Ori Ro* 05 40 56.3704617744 -01 30 25.856677224 5.96 6.82 6.96     B2V 318 2
55 HD 38087 ** 05 43 00.5754723576 -02 18 45.389406240 7.96 8.40 8.29 8.06 7.89 B3II 160 1
56 HD 38017 ** 05 44 05.15306 +30 56 01.7437 8.17         B3V+B2.5V 34 0
57 * bet Pic PM* 05 47 17.0876901 -51 03 59.441135 4.13 4.03 3.86 3.74 3.58 A6V 1796 1
58 LS V +30 31 * 06 03 50.1159657816 +30 10 09.166722420 10.65 11.31 10.95 10.886   O9V 23 0
59 HD 42051 * 06 08 23.5612492128 -06 32 55.138179840   9.26 8.96     B2II 26 0
60 HD 42050 * 06 08 26.2792559424 -05 20 22.479591768 7.39 8.13 8.12     B2III 37 1
61 NGC 2169 4 * 06 08 32.0231532240 +13 58 00.969233304 7.75 8.239 8.659 8.89   B1V 34 0
62 HD 41997 * 06 08 55.8226126488 +15 42 18.192106044 8.16 9.47 9.13 8.83   O7.5Vn((f)) 91 0
63 HD 42088 * 06 09 39.5728368936 +20 29 15.450599580 6.73 7.58 7.57 8.45   O6V((f))z 237 0
64 HD 42352 * 06 10 47.3592555024 +13 39 34.074253980 6.12 6.905 6.918     B1III 35 0
65 AG+20 649 bC? 06 14 06.1916006712 +20 10 10.932975336 7.63 8.53 8.62     B1:V:nn 34 0
66 HD 46060 V* 06 30 49.8131054472 -09 39 14.800859892   9.03 8.82     B2II 35 1
67 HD 51479 * 06 57 07.9293535176 -10 16 47.524002564   8.42 8.43     B7V 26 1
68 HD 51542 V* 06 57 21.2207940048 -11 07 03.517579344   9.54 9.58     B2/3(III) 20 0
69 HD 52329 * 07 00 28.6106658240 -08 51 57.685045680   8.52 8.57     B7/8III/IV 32 0
70 V* FZ CMa EB* 07 02 42.6143974968 -11 27 11.573934912 7.71 8.28 8.14     B2IVn 103 1
71 HD 53035 * 07 03 07.7710036368 -11 11 57.015532068 7.24 7.81 7.88     B3/5III 31 0
72 HD 53367 Ae* 07 04 25.5189757244 -10 27 15.613478141 6.81 7.40 6.96 7.92   B0IV/Ve 313 0
73 HD 53623 * 07 05 16.7478814056 -12 19 34.495070124 7.02 8.88 8.87 8.84   B1II/III 73 1
74 HD 56952 * 07 18 28.1867241624 -17 11 23.749365300   9.22 9.04 9.60   B3II 27 0
75 NGC 2392 PN 07 29 10.7671398096 +20 54 42.474888072     9.68     O6f 713 1
76 CD-28 5472 * 08 07 17.2381108104 -29 04 41.179220724 10.07 10.82 10.75 10.91   OB- 17 0
77 HD 68478 * 08 10 20.5684356576 -49 14 14.494042104 5.65 6.300 6.447     B3III/IV 48 0
78 HD 68496 * 08 10 27.2436784248 -49 09 50.928876288   7.81 7.88 7.92   B5/7V 38 0
79 HD 73695 * 08 38 15.3910337736 -39 25 03.522827064   9.08 8.84     B2/3II 12 0
80 * del Vel EB* 08 44 42.22658 -54 42 31.7493   2.00 1.95     A2IV+A4V+F8V 192 0
81 HD 76838 Be* 08 57 07.5515640336 -43 15 22.266109548 6.59 7.31 7.31     B2IV 58 2
82 CD-49 4527B * 09 35 40.0282737504 -50 13 23.673003420   11.75 11.26     ~ 9 0
83 HD 86601 * 09 58 00.9036588000 -52 53 35.035304496   8.07 8.04     B9/9.5III/IV 14 0
84 HD 89201 s*b 10 15 52.6068052104 -57 22 30.088805736 8.16 8.52 7.84 8.54   B1Ia/ab 46 0
85 HD 90177 s*b 10 22 53.8430096928 -59 37 28.363616256 9.16 9.66 8 8.15   LBV 320 0
86 HD 90578 Be* 10 26 00.1891197072 -57 49 36.962389308 8.63 9.43 9.28 9.74   B1Ib/II 58 0
87 HD 93403 SB* 10 45 44.1198371784 -59 24 28.153300860 6.72 8.46 8.27 8.35   O5.5III(fc)var 188 1
88 V* TW Hya TT* 11 01 51.9053285064 -34 42 17.033218380   11.94 10.50 10.626 9.18 K6Ve 1759 1
89 HD 99897 * 11 28 54.1820612352 -62 39 09.837096588 7.74 9.39 9.18 9.16   O6.5IV((f)) 63 0
90 HD 100099 * 11 30 24.3073215840 -63 49 02.021079000 7.36 8.17 8.08 8.90   O8/9 80 1
91 HD 100546 Be* 11 33 25.4408872296 -70 11 41.241297948   6.71 6.30   6.64 A0VaekB8_lB 729 1
92 HD 101298 * 11 39 03.2761321080 -63 25 47.052737472 7.33 8.15 8.07 8.84   O6.5IV((f)) 115 0
93 V* BU Cru EB* 12 53 37.6193092848 -60 21 25.425832356 6.49 7.04 6.84 7.55   B2Ib 108 0
94 V* DU Cru s*r 12 53 41.3323000176 -60 20 57.961158900   9.82 7.66     M2-Iab 54 0
95 HD 116121 * 13 23 03.7967895840 -63 03 42.386305644   9.26 9.27     O9/B0(V) 22 0
96 V* R Hya Mi* 13 29 42.7818674 -23 16 52.774679 7.26 6.58 4.97 2.27 -0.15 M6-9e 474 0
97 HD 122179 * 14 02 10.8761611800 -61 57 28.442932740   8.47 8.43     B8/9II/III 18 0
98 HD 123057 * 14 07 25.1195108976 -61 21 16.595041356   9.96 9.94     B8/9V 16 0
99 HD 124237 Pu* 14 14 33.6804423288 -61 47 56.348540304 9.32 9.74 9.42 9.76   B5/6V 28 0
100 HD 135917 * 15 20 32.5190010048 -59 32 37.596863112 6.35 7.23 7.32     B1III 23 0
101 HD 139636 * 15 41 57.2031960312 -56 36 44.311582656   10.60 10.40     B8/9III 50 1
102 HD 140926 Be* 15 48 47.8640339520 -54 23 44.366256600 7.12 7.86 7.90 9.04   B2/3Vnne 34 0
103 HD 141569 Y*O 15 49 57.7482550392 -03 55 16.341617064 7.22 7.20 7.12 7.00 7.04 A2VekB9mB9(_lB) 504 0
104 BD+33 2642 pA* 15 51 59.8854348048 +32 56 54.329485272 9.806 10.61 10.73 10.884 10.961 O7p 398 0
105 HD 141969 PN 15 56 01.6950076104 -66 09 09.231820920 12.37 10.75 10.95 10.88   BC0Ibe 211 0
106 HD 146479 * 16 18 55.3764314307 -50 23 30.688189173   8.76 8.74     B9V 12 0
107 HD 149388 ** 16 36 23.51535 -45 23 50.7138       9.592 8.995 B9IV 14 0
108 * zet Oph Be* 16 37 09.5390545 -10 34 01.529471 1.73 2.58 2.56 2.46 2.50 O9.2IVnn 1792 2
109 HD 150167 * 16 41 23.9343010344 -46 23 08.559928644   8.22 8.15     B9IV 10 0
110 HD 150742 * 16 44 42.5926704048 -40 50 22.830249192   5.528 5.628     B3V 69 1
111 HD 151397 * 16 48 49.9448711568 -39 46 16.681438992 9.27 9.98 9.84 10.05   B1Ib 49 0
112 HD 152723 * 16 56 54.6694171728 -40 30 44.442698436 6.43 7.24 7.10 8.11 8.47 O6.5III(f) 147 0
113 HD 154391 PM* 17 01 16.9254812328 +60 38 55.515611040   7.164 6.143     K1III 72 0
114 HD 153772 bC* 17 04 01.2303688176 -51 05 01.153454748 7.77 8.38 8.32     B2V 23 0
115 HD 157693 * 17 26 09.7326018768 -34 33 26.589014496 9.12 9.14 8.79     B4II 17 0
116 * c Oph Be* 17 31 24.9541340 -23 57 45.513592 4.75 4.81 4.81 4.74 4.72 A0V 265 0
117 V* V701 Sco EB* 17 34 24.5126770776 -32 30 15.985127556   9.08 8.97     B5 115 0
118 HD 315032 Y*O 18 04 15.0268429224 -24 23 27.713497344 9.170 9.164 9.122 9.71 9.039 B0IV 60 0
119 HD 165052 SB* 18 05 10.5506592816 -24 23 54.847798080 6.16 6.98 6.87 7.77   O5.5:Vz+O8:V 257 1
120 * 11 Sgr Or* 18 09 17.6999100192 -23 59 18.231196056 6.65 7.45 7.31 8.36   O7V(n)z+B0:V: 134 2
121 HD 167815 ** 18 17 39.97881 -19 40 19.8380 7.05         B1/2III 37 0
122 HD 168137 SB* 18 18 56.1894798360 -13 48 31.092549588 8.72 9.36 8.94 9.55   O8Vz 116 0
123 NGC 6618 OpC 18 20 47 -16 10.3           ~ 1562 0
124 HD 168552 * 18 21 00.2961308376 -17 09 06.148046340 7.89 8.37 8.13 8.01 8.92 B2/3Ib/II 46 0
125 V* W Sct EB* 18 24 33.4984242048 -13 39 12.786111720 10.7 10.66 10.04     B3n+B0 48 1
126 HD 170634 Y*O 18 30 24.8757877680 +01 13 23.641855860 10.53 10.43 9.85     B8-9IV 47 1
127 * alf Lyr dS* 18 36 56.33635 +38 47 01.2802 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.10 A0Va 2606 0
128 HD 173511 PM* 18 41 40.5911095584 +61 32 47.097310596   8.69 7.23     K5III 52 0
129 HD 227018 * 19 59 49.1028248712 +35 18 33.550210836 8.75 9.35 9.00     O6.5V((f))z 98 0
130 IRAS 20126+4104 Y*O 20 14 25.8816769656 +41 13 36.879427236           B2.5-B0.5 416 0
131 V* V470 Cyg EB* 20 19 21.7124062992 +40 53 16.458833832   8.737 8.48     B2 67 0
132 BD+41 3731 Be* 20 24 15.7159041312 +42 18 01.384401852 9.51 9.89 9.84     B3n 99 1
133 BD+42 3835 * 20 42 06.8617834032 +43 11 03.722655480 9.92 10.03 9.25     O9.5II-III 25 0
134 HD 197460 * 20 42 41.0891280840 +36 22 51.126447504 7.93 8.42 8.15     B0.5III 39 0
135 HD 197911 * 20 43 21.6055381800 +63 12 32.841808344 6.95 7.66 7.67     B5 25 0
136 HD 235350 Be* 20 45 10.5995717784 +51 12 37.992907044 8.95 9.48 9.31     B0.5IV 35 0
137 BD+45 3260 ** 20 45 35.2791550152 +46 21 02.076000300 9.07 9.54 9.14     O8.5V 42 0
138 HD 199021 bC* 20 52 53.2059215880 +42 36 27.876421224 8.6 8.94 8.49     B0V 35 0
139 HD 199714 ** 20 57 16.5835595544 +48 17 44.765028276 8.38 8.48 8.31     B8Ib 28 1
140 HD 239626 * 21 17 33.4711164072 +60 06 01.634307120 9.07 9.53 9.27     B0V 29 0
141 HD 204722 Be* 21 29 14.8445328456 +44 20 17.255820552 6.81 7.61 7.63     B1.5IV:np 55 0
142 HD 206135 Be* 21 36 57.0541096896 +68 11 07.301054652   8.39 8.27     B3V 30 1
143 HD 206183 * 21 38 26.2840588344 +56 58 25.459055868 6.75 7.55 7.41     O9.5IV-V 90 0
144 HD 239731 * 21 39 44.4352855080 +58 14 44.006171964 8.82 9.36 9.13     B5 17 0
145 HD 239738 * 21 41 58.5348465048 +58 30 00.209920752 7.84 8.27 8.57     B2IV 24 0
146 BD+62 2060 * 22 18 25.0451202504 +63 13 12.146953872 8.39 8.83 8.58     B8 22 0
147 HD 211880 * 22 18 27.8032795224 +63 13 22.448689068 7.47 7.99 7.75     B0.5V 97 0
148 HD 213231 * 22 28 39.0453666168 +58 50 44.801006388   8.60 8.29     B8 14 0
149 HD 240010 Be* 22 38 31.8300730272 +55 50 05.393150808 9.26 9.58 9.19     B1:IV:nnpe 56 0
150 LS III +51 42 Em* 22 51 38.9171619360 +51 50 42.440834364   12.01 11.78     B 75 1
151 BD+56 2903 * 22 55 45.7936871952 +57 36 06.904297116 9.67 10.37 10.22     B0.5:IV: 22 0
152 HD 217061 Be* 22 56 42.5512941096 +62 37 29.565104160 9.22 9.37 8.9     B5 97 0
153 * alf PsA ** 22 57 39.04625 -29 37 20.0533 1.31 1.25 1.16 1.11 1.09 A4V 1187 3
154 HD 217463 SB* 22 59 42.8721843072 +62 46 38.330808456 9.18 9.49 9.1     B1.5Vn 68 0
155 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7772 0
156 NAME Local Bubble ISM ~ ~           ~ 804 0

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2022.10.02-20:19:45

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