SIMBAD references

2012ApJ...744..195C - Astrophys. J., 744, 195 (2012/January-2)

Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the inner and outer halo components of the Milky Way.


Abstract (from CDS):

Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the halo components of the Milky Way are explored, based on accurate determinations of the carbon-to-iron ([C/Fe]) abundance ratios and kinematic quantities for over 30,000 calibration stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using our present criterion that low-metallicity stars exhibiting [C/Fe] ratios ("carbonicity") in excess of [C/Fe] =+0.7 are considered CEMP stars, the global frequency of CEMP stars in the halo system for [Fe/H] ←1.5 is 8%, for [Fe/H] ←2.0 it is 12%, and for [Fe/H] ←2.5 it is 20%. We also confirm a significant increase in the level of carbon enrichment with declining metallicity, growing from < [C/Fe] > ~+1.0 at [Fe/H] =-1.5 to < [C/Fe] > ~+1.7 at [Fe/H] =-2.7. The nature of the carbonicity distribution function (CarDF) changes dramatically with increasing distance above the Galactic plane,|Z|. For|Z| <5 kpc, relatively few CEMP stars are identified. For distances|Z| >5 kpc, the CarDF exhibits a strong tail toward high values, up to [C/Fe] > +3.0. We also find a clear increase in the CEMP frequency with|Z|. For stars with -2.0 < [Fe/H] ←1.5, the frequency grows from 5% at|Z| ∼2 kpc to 10% at|Z| ∼10 kpc. For stars with [Fe/H] ←2.0, the frequency grows from 8% at|Z| ∼2 kpc to 25% at|Z| ∼10 kpc. For stars with -2.0 < [Fe/H] ←1.5, the mean carbonicity is < [C/Fe] > ~+1.0 for 0 kpc <|Z| < 10 kpc, with little dependence on|Z|; for [Fe/H] ←2.0, < [C/Fe] > ~+1.5, again roughly independent of|Z|. Based on a statistical separation of the halo components in velocity space, we find evidence for a significant contrast in the frequency of CEMP stars between the inner- and outer-halo components–the outer halo possesses roughly twice the fraction of CEMP stars as the inner halo. The carbonicity distribution also differs between the inner-halo and outer-halo components–the inner halo has a greater portion of stars with modest carbon enhancement ([C/Fe] ~+0.5]); the outer halo has a greater portion of stars with large enhancements ([C/Fe] ~+2.0), although considerable overlap still exists. We interpret these results as due to the possible presence of additional astrophysical sources of carbon production associated with outer-halo stars, beyond the asymptotic giant-branch source that may dominate for inner-halo stars, with implications for the progenitors of these populations.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxy: evolution - Galaxy: formation - Galaxy: halo - Galaxy: structure - methods: data analysis - stars: abundances - surveys

CDS comments: Table 1: SDSS J071105.4+670128.2 is a misprint for SDSS J071105.43+670228.2.

Simbad objects: 35

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