2012AJ....143...39C


Query : 2012AJ....143...39C

2012AJ....143...39C - Astron. J., 143, 39 (2012/February-0)

A uniform search for secondary eclipses of hot Jupiters in Kepler Q2 light curves.

COUGHLIN J.L. and LOPEZ-MORALES M.

Abstract (from CDS):

In this paper, we present the results of searching the Kepler Q2 public data set for the secondary eclipses of 76 hot Jupiter planet candidates from the list of 1235 candidates published by Borucki et al. This search has been performed by modeling both the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curves and new light curves produced via our own photometric pipeline. We derive new stellar and planetary parameters for each system, while calculating robust errors for both. We find 16 systems with 1σ-2σ, 14 systems with 2σ-3σ, and 6 systems with >3σ confidence level secondary eclipse detections in at least one light curve produced via the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curve or our own pipeline; however, results can vary depending on the light curve modeled and whether eccentricity is allowed to vary or not. We estimate false alarm probabilities of 31%, 10%, and 6% for the 1σ-2σ, 2σ-3σ, and >3σ confidence intervals, respectively. Comparing each secondary eclipse result to theoretical expectations, we find that the majority of detected planet candidates emit more light than expected owing to thermal blackbody emission in the optical Kepler bandpass, and present a trend of increasing excess emission with decreasing maximum effective planetary temperature. These results agree with previously published optical secondary eclipse data for other hot Jupiters. We explore modeling biases, significant planetary albedos, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium or other thermal emission, significant internal energy generation, and misidentification of brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, or stellar blends as possible causes of both the excess emission and its correlation with expected planetary temperature. Although we find that no single cause is able to explain all of the planet candidates, significant planetary albedos, with a general trend of increasing planetary albedos with decreasing atmospheric temperatures, are able to explain most of the systems. Identifying systems that we deem likely to be low-mass stars or stellar blends, we estimate an 11% false-positive rate in the current Kepler planet candidate sample of hot Jupiters. We also establish robust upper limits on the eclipse depth for the remaining systems and find that the emission of a significant fraction of these systems is consistent with the planets having very low albedos, i.e., at least 30% of all systems have Ag< 0.3 at 1σ confidence levels. This result augments the current number of constrained exoplanetary albedos and extends the sample of low albedo determinations to planets with temperatures as low as 1200 K. Finally, we note that continued observations with the Kepler spacecraft and improved techniques for the removal of systematic noise in the Kepler data are needed to better characterize these systems.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): methods: data analysis - planetary systems - techniques: photometric

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/AJ/143/39): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat>

Simbad objects: 90

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Number of rows : 90
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 CoRoT-1b Pl 06 48 19.1724141241 -03 06 07.710423478           ~ 168 1
2 NAME OGLE-TR-56b Pl 17 56 35.5015759807 -29 32 21.476706712           ~ 199 1
3 Kepler-8b Pl 18 45 09.1489711922 +42 27 03.891516422           ~ 88 1
4 Kepler-8 Ro* 18 45 09.1489991376 +42 27 03.891327156           F6V 102 1
5 KOI-684 Ro* 18 45 09.6704776104 +43 24 48.020087808           G5V 35 0
6 KOI-667 * 18 48 37.0838969928 +42 14 04.595304012           ~ 17 0
7 KOI-1382 EB* 18 48 44.2504905744 +46 00 24.733864332           ~ 23 0
8 Kepler-488 EB* 18 51 51.8892198600 +48 20 42.180768744           ~ 32 0
9 Kepler-546 Ro* 18 53 01.8232460016 +40 59 25.695193272           ~ 27 0
10 KOI-981 RG* 18 54 56.7319913520 +44 42 47.986868124   11.69 10.87     G5V: 33 0
11 Kepler-723 EB* 18 59 19.3138934616 +44 39 29.330650836       15.50   ~ 32 1
12 KOI-256 EB* 19 00 44.4248866152 +49 33 55.248918660           M3V 45 0
13 Kepler-686 Ro* 19 00 51.3164244000 +39 01 38.813730924           ~ 32 0
14 Kepler-43 EB* 19 00 57.8034040200 +46 40 05.665887660   13.8   14.16   G0 77 1
15 KOI-1419 EB* 19 01 38.8741305456 +48 43 30.807902784           ~ 19 0
16 Kepler-4b Pl 19 02 27.6981397378 +50 08 08.703759444           ~ 97 1
17 Kepler-412 Ro* 19 04 26.4756106584 +43 40 51.351610944   14.41 13.73 14.67 12.79 ~ 57 1
18 Kepler-12 Er* 19 04 58.4220633696 +50 02 25.271762064   13.96   13.68   G0 78 1
19 Kepler-12b Pl 19 04 58.4220911942 +50 02 25.271416732           ~ 80 1
20 Kepler-1 Er* 19 07 14.0375836512 +49 18 59.091482160   11.85 11.25     G0V 165 2
21 Kepler-1b Pl 19 07 14.0379171930 +49 18 59.090895318           ~ 313 2
22 BD+46 2629 ** 19 07 53.104944 +46 52 06.00420   10.12 9.70 9.80   kA2hA5mA7(IV)m: 149 0
23 Kepler-491 EB* 19 08 31.3446274272 +42 21 00.609790608           K1 51 0
24 KOI-1459 EB* 19 08 34.3464438360 +46 30 29.020302684           M1V 38 0
25 KOI-609 Ro* 19 12 38.5594730760 +40 52 44.030759268           ~ 22 0
26 Kepler-7 Er* 19 14 19.5623105760 +41 05 23.367379128           G0 107 1
27 Kepler-7b Pl 19 14 19.5623271934 +41 05 23.365460942           ~ 190 1
28 Kepler-426 Ro* 19 17 44.3197671864 +49 28 24.305841048   15.736 15.073 14.863 14.735 ~ 48 0
29 Kepler-77 Ro* 19 18 25.9101027984 +44 20 43.571253840   15.03 14.10 13.91   G5V 63 1
30 KOI-5 EB* 19 18 57.5306473320 +44 38 50.618934060           G2V 68 0
31 KOI-1448 EB* 19 19 13.2498425448 +46 29 30.150436020           ~ 28 0
32 KOI-554 Ro* 19 21 24.2726089440 +40 41 13.160025420           G0V 30 0
33 Kepler-425 Ro* 19 21 25.9208083800 +40 34 03.855315612   16.047 14.97 14.73 14.605 K2 47 0
34 KOI-1543 EB* 19 21 47.3733769440 +40 26 34.436284908           G0V 24 0
35 Kepler-428 Ro* 19 22 19.6164487104 +40 34 38.564097492   16.584 15.405 15.101 14.84 K1V 42 0
36 Kepler-497 ** 19 23 03.801264 +38 55 40.69128       14.73   ~ 23 0
37 KOI-1285 EB* 19 26 32.8919924136 +47 49 55.959279312           ~ 25 0
38 CoRoT-2b Pl 19 27 06.4944821296 +01 23 01.357597206           ~ 221 1
39 CoRoT-3b Pl 19 28 13.2642482783 +00 07 18.614302248           ~ 131 1
40 Kepler-785 Ro* 19 28 16.3968401760 +38 50 32.146033884           M1V 37 0
41 KOI-1177 EB* 19 28 18.8377855584 +38 37 53.305390776           G9 22 0
42 KOI-760 EB* 19 28 40.0933854240 +48 43 39.322553952           ~ 40 0
43 KOI-838 Ro* 19 28 51.4465363920 +40 45 35.146134504           ~ 27 0
44 Kepler-42 Er* 19 28 52.5688740811 +44 37 08.989819665   17.8   16.06   M4V 110 1
45 BD+47 2846b Pl 19 28 59.3538131541 +47 58 10.216250846           ~ 344 1
46 BD+47 2846 Er* 19 28 59.3538826128 +47 58 10.217007804   10.97 10.48     F6V 290 2
47 Kepler-423 Ro* 19 31 25.3755434664 +46 23 28.220459784           ~ 55 0
48 Kepler-45 Ro* 19 31 29.4966491088 +41 03 51.356401092     16.88 16.63   M1V 87 1
49 KOI-1541 EB* 19 32 46.8162251064 +39 54 26.253679608           ~ 21 0
50 KOI-1452 EB* 19 33 07.5703260432 +43 03 20.984216940   14.02 13.68 13.58   F2V 40 0
51 Kepler-696 Ro* 19 33 59.1851566872 +41 08 15.358407720           ~ 28 0
52 Kepler-685 Ro* 19 35 29.2598583840 +38 25 22.609698816           K0IV 36 0
53 Kepler-41 Ro* 19 38 03.1746869808 +45 58 53.877058284           ~ 59 1
54 Kepler-688 Ro* 19 38 37.2539426640 +39 18 30.056452560           ~ 27 0
55 Kepler-71 Ro* 19 39 27.7155573840 +46 17 08.941351920       15.35   G8V 53 1
56 Kepler-485 Ro* 19 39 59.1150655776 +50 28 12.194378292           ~ 42 0
57 Kepler-490 Er* 19 40 06.1617213600 +46 57 21.564080028           ~ 38 0
58 Kepler-493 Ro* 19 41 13.8138363744 +38 52 53.926356072           ~ 32 0
59 KOI-882 Ro* 19 43 20.4869586984 +42 56 34.973050272           ~ 29 0
60 KOI-823 Ro* 19 44 01.6687543512 +40 17 43.480688928           F5V 27 0
61 Kepler-15 Ro* 19 44 48.1365025872 +49 08 24.297539028       14.03   G8IV-V 66 1
62 Kepler-731 EB* 19 45 34.3632953784 +45 34 06.816377604           ~ 35 0
63 KOI-895 Ro* 19 45 38.4462585912 +43 27 19.323182088           ~ 30 0
64 KOI-64 Ro* 19 46 02.5373669448 +42 32 50.793426168           G5V 39 0
65 Kepler-472 Ro* 19 46 05.8385951016 +39 14 59.161856964           K3V 41 0
66 KOI-883 Ro* 19 46 43.9374116784 +42 58 04.356492672           K2V 38 0
67 KOI-1152 Ro* 19 46 46.951416 +47 19 38.25732       14.06   M1V 34 0
68 Kepler-6b Pl 19 47 20.9379174935 +48 14 23.759506909           ~ 96 1
69 Kepler-6 Ro* 19 47 20.9379557640 +48 14 23.759029608           ~ 91 1
70 Kepler-670 Ro* 19 48 03.7152956904 +49 13 31.134289188           ~ 35 0
71 KOI-552 LM* 19 49 35.5836815376 +40 13 45.178017096           ~ 22 0
72 KOI-1227 EB* 19 50 49.7128745352 +42 02 50.518650768           ~ 32 0
73 Kepler-536 Ro* 19 50 56.7370297968 +49 38 13.814596608           ~ 37 0
74 KOI-611 Ro* 19 53 10.5711637968 +41 41 01.737321144           ~ 34 0
75 Kepler-17b Pl 19 53 34.8642919207 +47 48 54.049941399           ~ 91 1
76 Kepler-17 Ro* 19 53 34.8643397568 +47 48 54.049530564   14.6   13.6   G5V 139 1
77 KOI-1546 EB* 19 54 03.2726475288 +40 38 22.630554564       14.31   ~ 38 0
78 Kepler-553 Ro* 19 54 12.2069648544 +48 19 56.700698808           ~ 47 0
79 Kepler-424 Ro* 19 54 29.9854950120 +48 34 38.802689796           ~ 52 0
80 Kepler-720 Ro* 19 54 32.5577334264 +44 10 15.391105644           ~ 31 0
81 KOI-1540 Ro* 19 56 24.7812706896 +40 50 57.473339640           ~ 23 0
82 Kepler-695 Ro* 19 57 15.8565428064 +40 49 20.575896924           ~ 28 0
83 Kepler-5 Ro* 19 57 37.6884643560 +44 02 06.189718884           F5V 97 1
84 Kepler-5b Pl 19 57 37.6884816070 +44 02 06.189528905           ~ 95 1
85 Kepler-718 Ro* 19 58 14.8546391280 +43 30 12.810989196           ~ 32 0
86 KOI-102 Ro* 19 58 49.1429654544 +44 26 08.706567408   13.26 11.95     ~ 43 0
87 Kepler-548 Ro* 19 59 37.4206571400 +45 26 22.831393344           ~ 34 0
88 Kepler-44 Ro* 20 00 24.5656977240 +45 45 43.762595112   14.7   14.1   ~ 51 1
89 HD 189733b Pl 20 00 43.7130382888 +22 42 39.071811263           ~ 1323 1
90 HD 209458 V* 22 03 10.7727465312 +18 53 03.549393384   8.21 7.63     F9V 1070 1

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2023.02.07-18:15:35

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