2012AJ....143...39C


Query : 2012AJ....143...39C

2012AJ....143...39C - Astron. J., 143, 39 (2012/February-0)

A uniform search for secondary eclipses of hot Jupiters in Kepler Q2 light curves.

COUGHLIN J.L. and LOPEZ-MORALES M.

Abstract (from CDS):

In this paper, we present the results of searching the Kepler Q2 public data set for the secondary eclipses of 76 hot Jupiter planet candidates from the list of 1235 candidates published by Borucki et al. This search has been performed by modeling both the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curves and new light curves produced via our own photometric pipeline. We derive new stellar and planetary parameters for each system, while calculating robust errors for both. We find 16 systems with 1σ-2σ, 14 systems with 2σ-3σ, and 6 systems with >3σ confidence level secondary eclipse detections in at least one light curve produced via the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curve or our own pipeline; however, results can vary depending on the light curve modeled and whether eccentricity is allowed to vary or not. We estimate false alarm probabilities of 31%, 10%, and 6% for the 1σ-2σ, 2σ-3σ, and >3σ confidence intervals, respectively. Comparing each secondary eclipse result to theoretical expectations, we find that the majority of detected planet candidates emit more light than expected owing to thermal blackbody emission in the optical Kepler bandpass, and present a trend of increasing excess emission with decreasing maximum effective planetary temperature. These results agree with previously published optical secondary eclipse data for other hot Jupiters. We explore modeling biases, significant planetary albedos, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium or other thermal emission, significant internal energy generation, and misidentification of brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, or stellar blends as possible causes of both the excess emission and its correlation with expected planetary temperature. Although we find that no single cause is able to explain all of the planet candidates, significant planetary albedos, with a general trend of increasing planetary albedos with decreasing atmospheric temperatures, are able to explain most of the systems. Identifying systems that we deem likely to be low-mass stars or stellar blends, we estimate an 11% false-positive rate in the current Kepler planet candidate sample of hot Jupiters. We also establish robust upper limits on the eclipse depth for the remaining systems and find that the emission of a significant fraction of these systems is consistent with the planets having very low albedos, i.e., at least 30% of all systems have Ag< 0.3 at 1σ confidence levels. This result augments the current number of constrained exoplanetary albedos and extends the sample of low albedo determinations to planets with temperatures as low as 1200 K. Finally, we note that continued observations with the Kepler spacecraft and improved techniques for the removal of systematic noise in the Kepler data are needed to better characterize these systems.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): methods: data analysis - planetary systems - techniques: photometric

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/AJ/143/39): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat>

Simbad objects: 90

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Number of rows : 90
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 CoRoT-1b Pl 06 48 19.1723766840 -03 06 07.710745140           ~ 181 1
2 NAME OGLE-TR-56b Pl 17 56 35.5016678064 -29 32 21.479240220           ~ 201 1
3 Kepler-8 Ro* 18 45 09.1489991376 +42 27 03.891327156           F6V 108 1
4 Kepler-8b Pl 18 45 09.1489991376 +42 27 03.891327156           ~ 95 1
5 KOI-684 Er* 18 45 09.6704776104 +43 24 48.020087808   14.846 14.040 13.811   G5V 38 0
6 KOI-667 * 18 48 37.0838969928 +42 14 04.595304012           ~ 17 0
7 KOI-1382 EB* 18 48 44.2504905744 +46 00 24.733864332           ~ 23 0
8 Kepler-488 EB* 18 51 51.8892198600 +48 20 42.180768744       14.858   ~ 34 0
9 Kepler-546 Ro* 18 53 01.8232460016 +40 59 25.695193272           ~ 27 0
10 KOI-981 RG* 18 54 56.7319913520 +44 42 47.986868124   11.883 10.87 10.676   G5V: 42 0
11 Kepler-723 EB* 18 59 19.3138934616 +44 39 29.330650836       15.50   ~ 33 1
12 KOI-256 EB* 19 00 44.4248866152 +49 33 55.248918660           M3V 46 0
13 Kepler-686 Ro* 19 00 51.3164244000 +39 01 38.813730924           ~ 33 0
14 Kepler-43 EB* 19 00 57.8034040200 +46 40 05.665887660   13.8   14.16   G0 84 1
15 KOI-1419 EB* 19 01 38.8741305456 +48 43 30.807902784   16.271 15.719 15.620   ~ 20 0
16 Kepler-4b Pl 19 02 27.6979514832 +50 08 08.703945600           ~ 102 1
17 Kepler-412 Ro* 19 04 26.4756106584 +43 40 51.351610944   14.41 13.73 14.67 12.79 F9 63 1
18 Kepler-12b Pl 19 04 58.4220633696 +50 02 25.271762064           ~ 90 1
19 Kepler-12 Er* 19 04 58.4220633696 +50 02 25.271762064   13.96   13.68   G0 85 1
20 Kepler-1b Pl 19 07 14.0375836512 +49 18 59.091482160           ~ 331 2
21 Kepler-1 EB* 19 07 14.0375836512 +49 18 59.091482160   11.85 11.25     G0V 177 2
22 BD+46 2629 EB* 19 07 53.104944 +46 52 06.00420   10.12 9.70 9.80   kA2hA5mA7(IV)m: 157 0
23 Kepler-491 EB* 19 08 31.3446274272 +42 21 00.609790608           K1 57 0
24 KOI-1459 EB* 19 08 34.3464438360 +46 30 29.020302684           M1V 39 0
25 KOI-609 Er* 19 12 38.5594730760 +40 52 44.030759268   15.455 14.743 14.518   ~ 23 0
26 Kepler-7 Er* 19 14 19.5623105760 +41 05 23.367379128           G0 113 1
27 Kepler-7b Pl 19 14 19.5623105760 +41 05 23.367379128           ~ 206 1
28 Kepler-426 Ro* 19 17 44.3197671864 +49 28 24.305841048   15.736 15.073 14.863 14.735 ~ 50 0
29 Kepler-77 Ro* 19 18 25.9101027984 +44 20 43.571253840   15.03 14.10 13.91   G5V 70 1
30 KOI-5 EB* 19 18 57.5306473320 +44 38 50.618934060   12.560 11.735 11.613   G2V 72 0
31 KOI-1448 EB* 19 19 13.2498425448 +46 29 30.150436020           ~ 30 0
32 KOI-554 Ro* 19 21 24.2726089440 +40 41 13.160025420           G0V 32 0
33 Kepler-425 Ro* 19 21 25.9208083800 +40 34 03.855315612   16.047 14.97 14.73 14.605 K2 50 0
34 KOI-1543 EB* 19 21 47.3733769440 +40 26 34.436284908           G0V 25 0
35 Kepler-428 Ro* 19 22 19.6164487104 +40 34 38.564097492   16.584 15.405 15.101 14.84 K1V 44 0
36 Kepler-497 ** 19 23 03.801264 +38 55 40.69128       14.73   ~ 24 0
37 KOI-1285 EB* 19 26 32.8919924136 +47 49 55.959279312           ~ 25 0
38 CoRoT-2b Pl 19 27 06.4944378024 +01 23 01.359897468           ~ 236 1
39 CoRoT-3b Pl 19 28 13.2642131544 +00 07 18.613986132           ~ 137 1
40 Kepler-785 Ro* 19 28 16.3968401760 +38 50 32.146033884           M1V 40 0
41 KOI-1177 EB* 19 28 18.8377855584 +38 37 53.305390776       15.837   G9 23 0
42 Kepler-1976 EB* 19 28 40.0933854240 +48 43 39.322553952           ~ 42 0
43 KOI-838 Ro* 19 28 51.4465363920 +40 45 35.146134504           ~ 27 0
44 Kepler-42 Er* 19 28 52.5688740811 +44 37 08.989819665   17.8   16.06   M4V 114 1
45 BD+47 2846 Er* 19 28 59.3538826128 +47 58 10.217007804   10.97 10.48     F6V 307 2
46 BD+47 2846b Pl 19 28 59.3538826128 +47 58 10.217007804           ~ 380 1
47 Kepler-423 Ro* 19 31 25.3755434664 +46 23 28.220459784           F9 62 0
48 Kepler-45 Ro* 19 31 29.4966491088 +41 03 51.356401092     16.88 16.63   M1V 94 1
49 KOI-1541 EB* 19 32 46.8162251064 +39 54 26.253679608           ~ 22 0
50 KOI-1452 EB* 19 33 07.5703260432 +43 03 20.984216940   14.02 13.68 13.58   F2V 42 0
51 Kepler-696 Ro* 19 33 59.1851566872 +41 08 15.358407720           ~ 30 0
52 Kepler-685 Ro* 19 35 29.2598583840 +38 25 22.609698816           K0IV 38 0
53 Kepler-41 Ro* 19 38 03.1746869808 +45 58 53.877058284           ~ 66 1
54 Kepler-688 Ro* 19 38 37.2539426640 +39 18 30.056452560           ~ 27 0
55 Kepler-71 Ro* 19 39 27.7155573840 +46 17 08.941351920       15.35   G8V 61 1
56 Kepler-485 Ro* 19 39 59.1150655776 +50 28 12.194378292           F9 48 0
57 Kepler-490 Er* 19 40 06.1617213600 +46 57 21.564080028       14.797   ~ 42 0
58 Kepler-493 Er* 19 41 13.8138363744 +38 52 53.926356072   15.814 15.270 15.332   ~ 34 0
59 KOI-882 Ro* 19 43 20.4869586984 +42 56 34.973050272           ~ 30 0
60 KOI-823 Er* 19 44 01.6687543512 +40 17 43.480688928   15.926 15.449 15.255   F5V 28 0
61 Kepler-15 Ro* 19 44 48.1365025872 +49 08 24.297539028       14.03   G8IV-V 73 1
62 Kepler-731 EB* 19 45 34.3632953784 +45 34 06.816377604           ~ 36 0
63 KOI-895 Er* 19 45 38.4462585912 +43 27 19.323182088   16.551 15.572 15.591   ~ 31 0
64 KOI-64 Er* 19 46 02.5373669448 +42 32 50.793426168   14.029   13.122   G5V 42 0
65 Kepler-472 Er* 19 46 05.8385951016 +39 14 59.161856964       13.647   K3V 46 0
66 KOI-883 BY* 19 46 43.9374116784 +42 58 04.356492672           K2V 41 0
67 KOI-1152 Ro* 19 46 46.951416 +47 19 38.25732       14.06   M1V 35 0
68 Kepler-6 Ro* 19 47 20.9379557640 +48 14 23.759029608           ~ 98 1
69 Kepler-6b Pl 19 47 20.9379557640 +48 14 23.759029608           ~ 103 1
70 Kepler-670 Ro* 19 48 03.7152956904 +49 13 31.134289188           ~ 37 0
71 KOI-552 LM* 19 49 35.5836815376 +40 13 45.178017096           ~ 22 0
72 KOI-1227 EB* 19 50 49.7128745352 +42 02 50.518650768           ~ 32 0
73 Kepler-536 Ro* 19 50 56.7370297968 +49 38 13.814596608           G5 41 0
74 KOI-611 Er* 19 53 10.5711637968 +41 41 01.737321144       14.079   ~ 36 0
75 Kepler-17 Ro* 19 53 34.8643397568 +47 48 54.049530564   14.6   13.6   G5V 153 1
76 Kepler-17b Pl 19 53 34.8643397568 +47 48 54.049530564           ~ 101 1
77 KOI-1546 EB* 19 54 03.2726475288 +40 38 22.630554564       14.31   ~ 40 0
78 Kepler-553 Er* 19 54 12.2069648544 +48 19 56.700698808   16.140 15.147 14.817   G9 52 0
79 Kepler-424 Er* 19 54 29.9854950120 +48 34 38.802689796   15.326 14.521 14.317   ~ 57 0
80 Kepler-720 Ro* 19 54 32.5577334264 +44 10 15.391105644           ~ 32 0
81 KOI-1540 Ro* 19 56 24.7812706896 +40 50 57.473339640           ~ 24 0
82 Kepler-695 Ro* 19 57 15.8565428064 +40 49 20.575896924           ~ 28 0
83 Kepler-5b Pl 19 57 37.6884643560 +44 02 06.189718884           ~ 102 1
84 Kepler-5 Ro* 19 57 37.6884643560 +44 02 06.189718884           F5V 103 1
85 Kepler-718 Ro* 19 58 14.8546391280 +43 30 12.810989196           ~ 33 0
86 Kepler-1990 Er* 19 58 49.1429654544 +44 26 08.706567408   13.26 11.95     ~ 47 0
87 Kepler-548 Ro* 19 59 37.4206571400 +45 26 22.831393344           K1 36 0
88 Kepler-44 Er* 20 00 24.5656977240 +45 45 43.762595112   14.7   14.781   ~ 55 1
89 HD 189733b Pl 20 00 43.7129433648 +22 42 39.073143456           ~ 1440 1
90 HD 209458 V* 22 03 10.7727465312 +18 53 03.549393384   8.21 7.63     F9V 1115 1

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