2010A&A...515A..42R


Query : 2010A&A...515A..42R

2010A&A...515A..42R - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 515, A42-42 (2010/6-1)

Initial phases of massive star formation in high infrared extinction clouds. I. Physical parameters.

RYGL K.L.J., WYROWSKI F., SCHULLER F. and MENTEN K.M.

Abstract (from CDS):

The earliest phases of massive star formation are found in cold and dense infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). Since the detection method of IRDCs is very sensitive to the local properties of the background emission, we present here an alternative method to search for high column density in the Galactic plane by using infrared extinction maps. Using this method we find clouds between 1 and 5kpc, of which many were missed by previous surveys. By studying the physical conditions of a subsample of these clouds, we aim at a better understanding of the initial conditions of massive star formation. We have made extinction maps of the Galactic plane based on the 3.6-4.5µm color excess between the two shortest wavelength Spitzer IRAC bands, reaching to visual extinctions of ∼100mag and column densities of 9x1022cm–2. From this we compiled a new sample of cold and compact high extinction clouds. We used the MAMBO array at the IRAM 30m telescope to study the morphology, masses and densities of the clouds and the dense clumps within them. The latter were followed up by pointed ammonia observations with the 100 m Effelsberg telescope, to determine rotational temperatures and kinematic distances. Extinction maps of the Galactic plane trace large scale structures such as the spiral arms. The extinction method probes lower column densities, NH2∼4x1022cm–2, than the 1.2mm continuum, which reaches up to NH2 ∼3x1023cm–2 but is less sensitive to large scale structures. The 1.2mm emission maps reveal that the high extinction clouds contain extended cold dust emission, from filamentary structures to still diffuse clouds. Most of the clouds are dark in 24µm, but several show already signs of star formation via maser emission or bright infrared sources, suggesting that the high extinction clouds contain a variety of evolutionary stages. The observations suggest an evolutionary scheme from dark, cold and diffuse clouds, to clouds with a stronger 1.2mm peak and to finally clouds with many strong 1.2mm peaks, which are also warmer, more turbulent and already have some star formation signposts.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): dust, extinction - ISM: clouds - ISM: structure - stars: formation - radio lines: ISM - submillimeter: ISM

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/515/A42): table1.dat-table5.dat table7.dat fig1.dat fig5.dat ce/* mambo/*>

Nomenclature: Tables 1-2: HEC GLLL.ll+BB.bbA N=226+31. Tables 3-5, 7: HEC GLLL.ll+BB.bbA MMN N=44+11+52+44.

Simbad objects: 104

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Number of rows : 104
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NAME Per Arm PoG 03 30 +45.0           ~ 1385 0
2 NAME Crux Arm PoG 12 30 -60.0           ~ 88 0
3 NAME Crux-Scutum Spiral Arm reg 12 30 -60.0           ~ 295 0
4 3C 286 Sy1 13 31 08.2883506368 +30 30 32.960091564   17.51 17.25     ~ 4079 2
5 NAME Car-Sgr Arm PoG 15 00 -40.0           ~ 461 1
6 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13003 0
7 HEC G012.73-00.58 MM2 cor 18 15 32.7 -18 10 15           ~ 2 0
8 HEC G012.73-00.58 DNe 18 15 33.2 -18 08 45           ~ 1 0
9 HEC G013.28-00.34 MM1 cor 18 15 39.9 -17 34 37           ~ 2 0
10 HEC G013.28-00.34 DNe 18 15 40.8 -17 34 32           ~ 1 0
11 HEC G012.73-00.58 MM1 cor 18 15 41.3 -18 12 44           ~ 2 0
12 HEC G013.97-00.45 MM1 cor 18 17 16.5 -17 01 16           ~ 2 0
13 HEC G013.97-00.45 DNe 18 17 27.6 -17 01 34           ~ 1 0
14 [ERG2015] 2933 cor 18 17 34.7869 -17 06 55.228           ~ 11 0
15 [PW2010] 45 Y*O 18 17 35.136 -17 06 48.73           ~ 5 0
16 M 16 OpC 18 18 45 -13 47.5   6.58 6.0     ~ 985 2
17 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM3 cor 18 19 02.9 -16 30 29           ~ 2 0
18 HEC G017.19+00.81 MM1 cor 18 19 08.9 -13 36 29           ~ 3 0
19 HEC G017.19+00.81 MM3 cor 18 19 12.1 -13 33 32           ~ 2 0
20 HEC G017.19+00.81 DNe 18 19 12.9 -13 35 18           ~ 1 0
21 SSTGLMC G017.2173+00.8199 Y*O 18 19 12.935 -13 33 43.78           ~ 7 0
22 HEC G014.63-00.57 DNe 18 19 13.6 -16 29 56           ~ 8 0
23 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM2 cor 18 19 14.3 -16 30 41           ~ 2 0
24 IRAS 18164-1631 IR 18 19 14.7 -16 30 06           ~ 12 0
25 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM1 cor 18 19 15.2 -16 29 59           ~ 2 0
26 HEC G017.19+00.81 MM4 cor 18 19 15.2 -13 39 29           ~ 2 0
27 HEC G014.39-00.75A MM2 cor 18 19 17.4 -16 44 04           ~ 2 0
28 HEC G014.39-00.75A MM1 cor 18 19 19.0 -16 43 49           ~ 2 0
29 IRAS 18164-1340 FIR 18 19 19.6 -13 38 44           ~ 3 0
30 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM4 cor 18 19 20.5 -16 31 42           ~ 2 0
31 HEC G014.39-00.75B DNe 18 19 24.1 -16 47 34           ~ 1 0
32 HEC G014.39-00.75A DNe 18 19 24.1 -16 47 34           ~ 1 0
33 HEC G014.39-00.75B MM3 cor 18 19 33.3 -16 45 01           ~ 2 0
34 HEC G016.93+00.24 DNe 18 20 46.0 -14 05 28           ~ 1 0
35 HEC G016.93+00.24 MM1 cor 18 20 50.8 -14 06 01           ~ 2 0
36 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM5 cor 18 25 01.8 -13 09 06           ~ 2 0
37 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM4 cor 18 25 04.5 -13 08 27           ~ 2 0
38 HEC G018.26-00.24 DNe 18 25 05.3 -13 08 26           ~ 1 0
39 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM3 cor 18 25 05.6 -13 08 20           ~ 2 0
40 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM2 cor 18 25 06.4 -13 08 51           ~ 2 0
41 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM1 cor 18 25 11.8 -13 08 04           ~ 2 0
42 HEC G022.06+00.21 MM1 cor 18 30 34.7 -09 34 46           ~ 2 0
43 IRAS 18278-0936 IR 18 30 35.0 -09 34 46           ~ 7 0
44 SSTGLMC G022.0503+00.2109 Y*O 18 30 38.45664 -09 34 28.6356           ~ 6 0
45 HEC G022.06+00.21 DNe 18 30 40.5 -09 34 11           ~ 1 0
46 HEC G023.38-00.12 DNe 18 34 19.2 -08 32 53           ~ 1 0
47 HEC G023.38-00.12 MM2 cor 18 34 20.4 -08 33 16           ~ 2 0
48 HEC G023.38-00.12 MM1 cor 18 34 23.5 -08 32 20           ~ 2 0
49 HEC G025.79+00.81 MM1 cor 18 35 20.5 -05 56 36           ~ 2 0
50 HEC G025.79+00.81 MM2 cor 18 35 26.3 -05 59 21           ~ 2 0
51 HEC G025.79+00.81 DNe 18 35 26.6 -05 58 57           ~ 1 0
52 HEC G024.37-00.15 DNe 18 36 16.5 -07 40 56           ~ 1 0
53 HEC G024.37-00.15 MM2 cor 18 36 18.3 -07 41 00           ~ 2 0
54 HEC G024.37-00.15 MM1 cor 18 36 27.8 -07 40 24           ~ 2 0
55 RAFGL 5515 HII 18 36 29.0 -07 40 33           ~ 29 0
56 HEC G024.94-00.15 MM2 cor 18 37 12.2 -07 11 23           ~ 2 0
57 HEC G024.94-00.15 DNe 18 37 19.4 -07 10 34           ~ 1 0
58 HEC G024.94-00.15 MM1 cor 18 37 19.7 -07 11 41           ~ 2 0
59 HEC G024.61-00.33 MM2 cor 18 37 21.3 -07 33 07           ~ 3 0
60 HEC G024.61-00.33 DNe 18 37 21.6 -07 33 08           ~ 1 0
61 IRAS 18346-0734 mul 18 37 21.9 -07 31 42           ~ 4 0
62 MSX5C G024.6348-00.3236 Y*O 18 37 22.7091 -07 31 42.093           ~ 16 0
63 HEC G030.90+00.00A MM1 cor 18 47 28.10 -01 48 06.8           ~ 3 0
64 SNR G030.8-00.0 SNR 18 47 32 -01 56.5           ~ 483 0
65 HEC G030.90+00.00B MM2 cor 18 47 41.9 -01 52 13           ~ 2 0
66 HEC G030.90+00.00D DNe 18 47 43.1 -01 48 24           ~ 1 0
67 HEC G030.90+00.00C DNe 18 47 43.1 -01 48 24           ~ 1 0
68 HEC G030.90+00.00B DNe 18 47 43.1 -01 48 24           ~ 1 0
69 HEC G030.90+00.00A DNe 18 47 43.1 -01 48 24           ~ 1 0
70 HEC G030.90+00.00C MM3 cor 18 47 48.2 -01 51 30           ~ 2 0
71 HEC G030.90+00.00D MM4 cor 18 47 51.5 -01 49 24           ~ 1 0
72 HEC G034.85+00.43 MM1 cor 18 53 23.2 +01 53 16           ~ 2 0
73 HEC G034.85+00.43 DNe 18 53 23.6 +01 54 07           ~ 1 0
74 MSX6C G034.0126-00.2832 Y*O 18 54 25.0352184192 +00 49 56.679839580           ~ 5 1
75 HEC G034.03-00.33 DNe 18 54 36.9 +00 49 43           ~ 2 0
76 IRAS 18542+0114 cor 18 56 48.27432 +01 18 47.1132           ~ 29 0
77 HEC G034.71-00.63 DNe 18 56 55.6 +01 17 44           ~ 2 0
78 HEC G034.71-00.63 MM2 cor 18 56 58.2 +01 18 44           ~ 2 0
79 HEC G035.49-00.30A MM1 cor 18 57 05.2 +02 06 29           ~ 2 0
80 HEC G034.71-00.63 MM3 cor 18 57 06.5 +01 16 52           ~ 2 0
81 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM5 cor 18 57 06.7 +02 08 27           ~ 1 0
82 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM3 cor 18 57 08.1 +02 10 47           ~ 2 0
83 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM2 cor 18 57 08.4 +02 09 01           ~ 2 0
84 MSXDC G035.39-0.33 MoC 18 57 09.0 +02 07 46           ~ 104 0
85 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM4 cor 18 57 09.0 +02 08 23           ~ 1 0
86 HEC G035.49-00.30B DNe 18 57 10.4 +02 08 27           ~ 1 0
87 HEC G035.49-00.30A DNe 18 57 10.4 +02 08 27           ~ 1 0
88 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM6 cor 18 57 11.5 +02 07 27           ~ 1 0
89 HEC G034.34-00.90 DNe 18 57 12.8 +00 50 40           ~ 1 0
90 HEC G034.77-00.81 DNe 18 57 40.0 +01 15 57           ~ 1 0
91 HEC G034.77-00.81 MM1 cor 18 57 40.7 +01 16 09           ~ 2 0
92 HEC G037.44+00.14A DNe 18 59 09.6 +04 04 18           ~ 1 0
93 HEC G037.44+00.14B DNe 18 59 09.6 +04 04 18           ~ 1 0
94 HEC G037.44+00.14B MM2 cor 18 59 10.2 +04 04 32           ~ 2 0
95 HEC G037.44+00.14A MM1 cor 18 59 14.0 +04 07 37           ~ 2 0
96 HEC G050.06+00.06 MM2 cor 19 23 09.2 +15 12 42           ~ 2 0
97 HEC G050.06+00.06 MM1 cor 19 23 12.4 +15 13 35           ~ 2 0
98 HEC G050.06+00.06 DNe 19 23 13.0 +15 13 28           ~ 1 0
99 HEC G053.81-00.00 DNe 19 30 54.4 +18 29 32           ~ 1 0
100 IRAS 19286+1823 Y*O 19 30 55.496 +18 29 57.06           ~ 7 0
101 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 719 1
102 NGC 7027 PN 21 07 01.571952 +42 14 10.47120   10.358 8.831 10.157   ~ 2405 1
103 NAME Norma-Cygnus Arm reg ~ ~           ~ 76 0
104 NAME Galactic Bar reg ~ ~           ~ 1047 0

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2022.07.05-13:44:54

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