2009MNRAS.395.1409S


Query : 2009MNRAS.395.1409S

2009MNRAS.395.1409S - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 395, 1409-1437 (2009/May-3)

The death of massive stars - I. Observational constraints on the progenitors of type II-P supernovae.

SMARTT S.J., ELDRIDGE J.J., CROCKETT R.M. and MAUND J.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present the results of a 10.5-yr, volume-limited (28-Mpc) search for supernova (SN) progenitor stars. In doing so we compile all SNe discovered within this volume (132, of which 27 per cent are Type Ia) and determine the relative rates of each subtype from literature studies. The core-collapse SNe break down into 59 per cent II-P and 29 per cent Ib/c, with the remainder being IIb (5 per cent), IIn (4 per cent) and II-L (3 per cent). There have been 20 II-P SNe with high-quality optical or near-infrared pre-explosion images that allow a meaningful search for the progenitor stars. In five cases they are clearly red supergiants, one case is unconstrained, two fall on compact coeval star clusters and the other twelve have no progenitor detected. We review and update all the available data for the host galaxies and SN environments (distance, metallicity and extinction) and determine masses and upper mass estimates for these 20 progenitor stars using the stars stellar evolutionary code and a single consistent homogeneous method. A maximum likelihood calculation suggests that the minimum stellar mass for a Type II-P to form is mmin= 8.5+1–1.5M and the maximum mass for II-P progenitors is mmax= 16.5±1.5M, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function holds for the progenitor population (in the range Γ = -1.35+0.3–0.7). The minimum mass is consistent with current estimates for the upper limit to white dwarf progenitor masses, but the maximum mass does not appear consistent with massive star populations in Local Group galaxies. Red supergiants in the Local Group have masses up to 25M and the minimum mass to produce a Wolf-Rayet star in single star evolution (between solar and LMC metallicity) is similarly 25-30M. The reason we have not detected any high-mass red supergiant progenitors above 17M is unclear, but we estimate that it is statistically significant at 2.4σ confidence. Two simple reasons for this could be that we have systematically underestimated the progenitor masses due to dust extinction or that stars between 17-25Mproduce other kinds of SNe which are not II-P. We discuss these possibilities and find that neither provides a satisfactory solution. We term this discrepancy the `red supergiant problem' and speculate that these stars could have core masses high enough to form black holes and SNe which are too faint to have been detected. We compare the 56Ni masses ejected in the SNe to the progenitor mass estimates and find that low-luminosity SNe with low 56Ni production are most likely to arise from explosions of low-mass progenitors near the mass threshold that can produce a core-collapse.

Abstract Copyright: © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 RAS

Journal keyword(s): stars: evolution - supergiants - supernovae: general - galaxies: stellar content

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/MNRAS/395/1409): tablea1.dat>

Simbad objects: 294

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Number of rows : 294
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 11879 1
2 NGC 266 LIN 00 49 47.8149787992 +32 16 39.786194928 12.98 12.54 11.63     ~ 179 2
3 SN 2005gl SN* 00 49 50.02 +32 16 56.8       17.0   SNIIn 133 2
4 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 10311 1
5 NAME NGC 300 OT2008-1 ev 00 54 34.16 -37 38 28.6           ~ 118 1
6 NGC 300 GiG 00 54 53.4465638304 -37 41 03.168402396 8.83 8.69 8.13 7.46   ~ 1412 2
7 SN 1998dn SN* 01 01 27.08 -07 36 36.7     15.8     SNII 16 1
8 MCG-01-03-065 LSB 01 01 33.987 -07 35 18.75 12.57 12.70 12.17 12.8 12.5 ~ 75 1
9 SN 1998dm SN* 01 26 13.97 -06 06 14.0   14.70       SNIa 60 1
10 UGCA 17 EmG 01 26 14.419 -06 05 39.01   13.8   13.7 13.1 ~ 83 0
11 SN 2002ap SN* 01 36 23.85 +15 45 13.2   13.11 14.54     SNIc-BL 536 1
12 M 74 G 01 36 41.7451236624 +15 47 01.107512304 10.52 10.00 9.46 9.16   ~ 1571 1
13 SN 2003gd SN* 01 36 42.65 +15 44 19.9     13.2     SNIIP 230 2
14 SN 2004fc SN* 01 51 03.85 -09 42 06.9     15.5     SNIIP 30 1
15 NGC 701 GiG 01 51 03.8830973976 -09 42 09.227365200   12.8   11.59 12.6 ~ 171 0
16 SN 2006ce SN* 02 22 54.63 -21 14 29.4     12.4     SNIa 12 1
17 NGC 908 GiP 02 23 04.569 -21 14 01.86   11.03 10.18 9.84 10.6 ~ 184 1
18 NGC 936 GiP 02 27 37.462 -01 09 22.61   11.1   9.98 10.7 ~ 345 0
19 SN 2003gs SN* 02 27 38.36 -01 09 35.4     14.0     SNIap 52 1
20 NGC 941 GiP 02 28 27.847 -01 09 05.61   12.8   13.0 12.9 ~ 136 0
21 SN 2005ad SN* 02 28 29.45 -01 08 20.0           SNIIP 23 1
22 SN 2007gr SN* 02 43 27.98 +37 20 44.7       12.77   SNIc 211 1
23 NGC 1058 Sy2 02 43 30.0264850248 +37 20 28.782851784   12.29 11.75 10.85   ~ 451 0
24 NGC 1084 GiG 02 45 59.926 -07 34 43.10 11.22 11.59 10.73 10.55 11.1 ~ 348 2
25 SN 1998dl SN* 02 46 01.47 -07 34 25.1     16.0     SNIIP 40 1
26 SN 2003B SN* 02 46 13.78 -30 13 45.1     15.0     SNIIP 38 2
27 NGC 1097 LIN 02 46 19.059 -30 16 29.68 10.46 9.97 9.48 8.72 9.8 ~ 1259 3
28 SN 1999eu SN* 02 46 20.79 -30 19 06.1     17.3     SNIIPp 42 1
29 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 6371 1
30 SN 2007Y SN* 03 02 35.92 -22 53 50.1     17.5     SNIb 102 1
31 NGC 1187 EmG 03 02 37.5895048560 -22 52 02.479512648   11.41   10.43 11.2 ~ 207 1
32 NGC 1201 GiG 03 04 07.9912913448 -26 04 10.874234136   11.78 10.64 10.35   ~ 136 0
33 SN 2003hv SN* 03 04 09.32 -26 05 07.5     12.5     SNIa 113 1
34 NGC 1302 GiG 03 19 51.2026512864 -26 03 37.946814660   11.43   9.99 10.8 ~ 139 0
35 SN 2003if SN* 03 19 52.61 -26 03 50.5     17.6     SNIa 11 1
36 SN 2002fk SN* 03 22 05.71 -15 24 03.2     15.7     SNIa 91 1
37 NGC 1309 GiG 03 22 06.5548977432 -15 23 59.791692912   12.08   12.5 11.7 ~ 205 0
38 SN 2006dd SN* 03 22 41.64 -37 12 13.2   14.5 15.0     SNIa 70 1
39 NGC 1316 GiP 03 22 41.789 -37 12 29.52 9.81 9.15 8.53 7.66   ~ 1295 1
40 SN 2006mr SN* 03 22 42.84 -37 12 28.5     15.6     SNIap 61 1
41 SN 2001du SN* 03 33 29.11 -36 08 32.5     14.0     SNIIP 48 1
42 NGC 1365 Sy1 03 33 36.458 -36 08 26.37 10.48 10.08 9.63 8.79 9.7 ~ 1647 2
43 NGC 1367 GiG 03 35 01.3451198496 -24 55 59.504904516   11.48   9.98 11.1 ~ 184 0
44 SN 2005ke SN* 03 35 04.35 -24 56 38.8     17.2     SNIap 137 1
45 SN 2007on SN* 03 38 50.90 -35 34 30.0       14.9   SNIa 117 1
46 NGC 1404 GiP 03 38 51.917 -35 35 39.81 11.53 10.69 10.00 9.03   ~ 713 1
47 SN 2001el SN* 03 44 30.60 -44 38 23.4   12.81       SNIa 252 1
48 NGC 1448 GiG 03 44 31.915 -44 38 41.38   11.46   10.24 10.9 ~ 244 0
49 SN 2003hn SN* 03 44 36.1 -44 37 49     14.1     SNIIP 56 1
50 SN 2003bg SN* 04 10 59.42 -31 24 50.3     15.0     SNIc 138 1
51 ESO 420-9 LSB 04 11 00.598 -31 24 28.15   13.75   12.79   ~ 61 0
52 SN 1997D SN* 04 11 01.00 -56 29 56.0       16.3   SNIIpec 169 1
53 UGC 2984 LSB 04 13 12.403 +13 25 19.10   17       ~ 51 0
54 SN 2002jz SN* 04 13 12.52 +13 25 07.3     15.9     SNIc 20 1
55 MCG-03-11-019 G 04 16 12.545 -16 45 02.41   14.41   14.2 14.2 ~ 37 0
56 SN 2004ea SN* 04 16 13.20 -16 45 20.5     18.2     SNIa 9 1
57 NGC 1559 GiG 04 17 35.7508602240 -62 47 01.251567384   11.19 10.45 10.11 10.4 ~ 255 1
58 SN 2005df SN* 04 17 37.85 -62 46 09.5     13.8     SNIa 61 1
59 SN 1999em SN* 04 41 27.04 -02 51 45.2   13.79 13.7     SNIIP 629 1
60 NGC 1637 AGN 04 41 28.1926876152 -02 51 28.667815488   11.4   11.0 11.3 ~ 395 0
61 SN 2001B SN* 04 57 19.24 +78 11 16.5     15.0     SNIb 40 1
62 IC 391 G 04 57 21.103 +78 11 19.50   12.80       ~ 73 0
63 NGC 1832 G 05 12 03.3433348776 -15 41 16.021694220   12.2   11.07 11.8 ~ 232 1
64 SN 2004gq SN* 05 12 04.81 -15 40 54.2     15.5     SNIb 85 1
65 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16150 1
66 SN 1987A SN* 05 35 28.020 -69 16 11.07           SNIIpec 4721 2
67 SN 2003hx SN* 05 46 46.97 -16 47 00.6     14.3     SNIa 19 1
68 NGC 2076 GiG 05 46 47.465 -16 46 57.47   12.7   11.84 12.2 ~ 58 0
69 IC 2152 GiG 05 57 53.4121499880 -23 10 50.744462484   13.44   12.27 13.1 ~ 37 0
70 SN 2004ep SN* 05 57 53.66 -23 10 58.3     18.6     SNII 12 1
71 NGC 2146 SBG 06 18 37.710 +78 21 25.27 11.67 11.38 10.59     ~ 670 2
72 SN 2005V SN* 06 18 38.28 +78 21 28.8           SNIb/c 24 1
73 ESO 121-26 G 06 21 38.7213440688 -59 44 23.748469764   12.58   11.54 12.2 ~ 69 0
74 SN 2008M SN* 06 21 41.28 -59 43 45.4     15.5     SNIIP 31 1
75 NGC 2280 EmG 06 44 49.0852522224 -27 38 18.562480188   11.13   9.77 11.3 ~ 127 0
76 SN 2001fz SN* 06 44 50.26 -27 37 12.7     17.4     SNIIP 10 1
77 SN 2006bc SN* 07 21 16.50 -68 59 57.3   17.6 16.0     SNIIP 41 1
78 NGC 2397 GiG 07 21 19.8926907744 -69 00 05.031850284   12.85   11.57   ~ 88 0
79 SN 1999ga SN* 07 36 16.70 -69 33 21.8       18   SNIIL 15 1
80 NGC 2442 LIN 07 36 23.7700545576 -69 31 50.997856332 11.47 11.15 10.42 9.71 10.4 ~ 202 1
81 NGC 2403 AGN 07 36 51.3381434280 +65 36 09.650825640 9.31 8.84 8.38 8.19   ~ 1701 1
82 TS V37 s*b 07 37 01.83 +65 34 29.3     19     LBV 62 1
83 [S75b] NGC 2403 2 HII 07 37 06.82 +65 36 38.7           ~ 37 0
84 2MASS J07371703+6535579 HXB 07 37 17.0432126424 +65 35 57.826001220           SNIIP 253 1
85 ESO 209-9 GiG 07 58 15.009 -49 51 05.08   12.68   12.1 11.8 ~ 70 0
86 SN 2005ae SN* 07 58 15.84 -49 51 19.9     17.5     SNIIb 8 1
87 ESO 494-26 GiG 08 06 11.0882500560 -27 31 41.555016984   12.47   10.84   ~ 49 1
88 SN 2006mq SN* 08 06 12.39 -27 33 45.4     12.7     SNIa 16 1
89 SN 2002hc SN* 08 17 06.05 -27 27 27.0     17     SNIIL 8 1
90 NGC 2559 GiG 08 17 06.074 -27 27 20.95   11.71   10.10 10.7 ~ 70 0
91 SN 2001fu SN* 08 52 16.58 -17 44 29.8     15.1     SNIa 10 1
92 ESO 563-31 GiG 08 52 18.3296308728 -17 44 40.055445600   14.13   12.71   ~ 23 0
93 SN 2003Z SN* 09 07 32.46 +60 29 17.5     16.7     SNIIP 69 1
94 NGC 2816 GiG 09 07 33.5746410432 +60 28 45.818789124   12.0       ~ 195 0
95 SN 2000ds SN* 09 11 36.24 +60 01 42.2     17.9     SNIb 46 1
96 NGC 2768 SyG 09 11 37.504 +60 02 13.95 11.30 10.84 9.87     ~ 486 2
97 SN 2006jc SN* 09 17 20.78 +41 54 32.7     13.8     SNIbn 305 1
98 UGC 4904 GiP 09 17 21.709 +41 54 38.92   15.0       ~ 66 0
99 IC 2458 GiP 09 21 30.1318400448 +64 14 19.768079076   14.9       ~ 79 0
100 SN 1998bm SN* 09 21 30.49 +64 14 25.4     17.6     SNII 12 1
101 SN 1999by SN* 09 21 52.07 +51 00 06.6   13.66       SNIap 275 1
102 NGC 2841 LIN 09 22 02.6778711696 +50 58 35.737082868 10.43 10.09 9.22     ~ 1030 1
103 SN 2003jg SN* 09 45 38.40 -31 11 19.9     17     SNIb/c 14 1
104 NGC 2997 GiG 09 45 38.7542237472 -31 11 27.345810192   9.97 9.41 8.84 9.9 ~ 400 0
105 NAME M 81-82 Group GrG 09 55 +69.1           ~ 682 0
106 SN 1993J SN* 09 55 24.77476 +69 01 13.7026   10.8 12.0     SNIIb 1338 1
107 M 81 Sy2 09 55 33.1726556496 +69 03 55.062505368   7.89 6.94     ~ 4201 3
108 CXOU J095546.6+694037 HXB 09 55 46.6536476856 +69 40 37.899496056           SNIIP 46 1
109 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5616 6
110 SN 2001ci SN* 10 01 57.33 +55 41 14.6     18.3     SNIc 25 1
111 NGC 3079 Sy2 10 01 57.8789863992 +55 40 47.449758324 11.57 11.54 10.86     ~ 1320 3
112 NGC 3169 GiP 10 14 15.0379414272 +03 27 57.941639856   13.46 12.41     ~ 348 1
113 SN 2003cg SN* 10 14 15.97 +03 28 02.5   15.94       SNIa 129 1
114 SN 2002cv SN* 10 18 03.68 +21 50 06.2         16.67 SNIa 50 1
115 NGC 3189 GiP 10 18 05.643 +21 49 54.98 12.60 12.12 11.15 11.14   ~ 377 2
116 SN 2002bo SN* 10 18 06.51 +21 49 41.7   13.95       SNIa 297 1
117 SN 1999gi SN* 10 18 16.66 +41 26 28.2   14.8       SNIIP 219 1
118 NGC 3180 GiG 10 18 16.985 +41 25 27.77   10.4       ~ 676 0
119 SN 1999bw SN* 10 19 46.81 +45 31 35.0     17.8     SNIIn? 58 2
120 NGC 3198 EmG 10 19 54.990 +45 32 58.88 10.83 10.87 10.33     ~ 855 1
121 NGC 3279 GiG 10 34 42.792 +11 11 50.08   14.10       ~ 95 0
122 SN 2007av SN* 10 34 43.18 +11 11 39.1     15.5     SNIIP 29 1
123 SN 1998bv SN* 10 38 25.41 +47 42 32.8   17.1       SNIIP 10 1
124 LEDA 2302994 EmG 10 38 25.7556483480 +47 42 36.659972124   16.4       ~ 14 0
125 * eta Car Em* 10 45 03.5377808928 -59 41 04.051599720 6.37 7.03 6.48 4.90 4.41 OBepec 2332 0
126 M 96 GiP 10 46 45.744 +11 49 11.78 10.42 10.15 9.25 8.99   ~ 783 1
127 SN 1998bu SN* 10 46 46.01 +11 50 07.5   12.11       SNIa 306 1
128 NGC 3430 GiP 10 52 11.3923421616 +32 57 01.545623100   12.2       ~ 207 0
129 SN 2004ez SN* 10 52 15.11 +32 57 20.1       17.3   SNIIP 17 1
130 NGC 3432 IG 10 52 31.132 +36 37 07.60   11.81 11.67 11.29   ~ 269 1
131 SN 2004bm SN* 10 52 35.33 +22 56 05.5     17.5     SNIc 21 1
132 NGC 3437 EmG 10 52 35.7533541720 +22 56 02.883954120   12.575 11.961 11.474 10.818 ~ 169 1
133 SN 2007sv ev 10 52 40.05 +67 59 14.2           ~ 20 1
134 UGC 5979 G 10 52 41.16 +67 59 18.8   15.6       ~ 21 0
135 SN 2000ch SN* 10 52 41.40 +36 40 09.5     17.4     SNIIn? 88 2
136 SN 2007sa SN* 11 03 10.78 +56 13 26.3     14.2     SNIa 10 1
137 NGC 3499 GiG 11 03 11.0483985840 +56 13 18.448285980   14.3       ~ 71 0
138 NGC 3504 LIN 11 03 11.191 +27 58 20.77   13.48 12.93     ~ 504 2
139 SN 1998cf SN* 11 03 11.23 +27 58 21.3   14.8     15 ~ 12 1
140 SN 2001ac SN* 11 03 15.37 +27 58 29.5     18.2     SNIIn? 34 2
141 SN 2001fv SN* 11 04 01.66 +28 01 55.7     16.4     SNIIP 21 1
142 NGC 3512 GiP 11 04 02.9540255952 +28 02 12.394037112   13.7 12.87     ~ 150 0
143 SN 1998A SN* 11 09 50.33 -23 43 43.1       17.0   SNIIpec 51 1
144 IC 2627 EmG 11 09 53.3868003696 -23 43 33.192730524   12.67   11.36 11.9 ~ 102 0
145 NGC 3603 OpC 11 15 11 -61 15.5           ~ 1016 1
146 SN 2002ji SN* 11 22 53.15 +16 35 10.0     15.1     SNIb 36 1
147 NGC 3655 Sy2 11 22 54.6356867928 +16 35 24.235700100   12.575 11.904 11.366 10.732 ~ 168 0
148 SN 2007bm SN* 11 25 02.30 -09 47 53.8     16.0     SNIa 50 1
149 NGC 3672 EmG 11 25 02.4824415408 -09 47 43.360336932   11.9   10.80 11.6 ~ 184 0
150 SN 2004C SN* 11 27 29.72 +56 52 48.2           SNIc 30 1
151 NGC 3683 H2G 11 27 31.890 +56 52 36.15   12.7       ~ 175 0
152 SN 2000ew SN* 11 40 58.52 +11 27 55.9     14.9     SNIc 56 1
153 NGC 3810 GiG 11 40 58.7615811624 +11 28 15.808680696   11.4       ~ 324 2
154 SN 1998S SN* 11 46 06.1 +47 28 55     12.2     SNIIn 425 1
155 NGC 3877 GiG 11 46 07.782 +47 29 40.20   11.8       ~ 299 0
156 SN 2005ay SN* 11 52 48.07 +44 06 18.4   15.3       SNIIP 50 1
157 NGC 3938 GiG 11 52 49.4335936248 +44 07 14.697085116 10.80 10.90 10.38     ~ 498 1
158 SN 2000db SN* 11 53 39.75 +47 51 46.6     14.3     SNIIP 21 1
159 NGC 3949 GiG 11 53 41.7311041896 +47 51 31.401451476   10.9       ~ 318 1
160 SN 2001dp SN* 11 53 45.22 +52 20 56.8     14.5     SNIa 14 1
161 NGC 3953 GiG 11 53 49.0086582552 +52 19 36.475395312   11.08   9.71   ~ 336 0
162 SN 2006bp SN* 11 53 55.74 +52 21 09.4 14.5 15.8 14.7     SNIIP 166 1
163 SN 1998aq SN* 11 56 25.87 +55 07 43.2   12.31 14.9     SNIa 177 1
164 NGC 3982 Sy1 11 56 28.1445516072 +55 07 30.859586652   12.20 11.70 11.18   ~ 517 1
165 SN 2008es SN* 11 56 49.13 +54 27 25.7           SNIIL 106 1
166 NGC 4030 GiP 12 00 23.6102390784 -01 06 00.197099136   11.42   10.3 10.4 ~ 314 1
167 SN 2007aa SN* 12 00 27.69 -01 04 51.6 16.9 16.4 5.8     SNIIP 56 1
168 NGC 4019 GiP 12 01 10.4258471688 +14 06 16.486602372   13.9       ~ 116 0
169 SN 1999an SN* 12 01 10.57 +14 06 12.3     15     SNII 26 1
170 SN 2007gi SN* 12 01 23.42 +61 53 33.8     16.3     SNIa 40 1
171 NGC 4036 LIN 12 01 26.7603659808 +61 53 44.625848784   12.18 11.20     ~ 248 0
172 SN 2004gt SN* 12 01 50.37 -18 52 12.7   19.42 14.9     SNIc 71 1
173 SN 2007sr SN* 12 01 52.80 -18 58 21.7     12.79     SNIa 80 1
174 NGC 4038 GiP 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1304 1
175 NGC 4051 Sy1 12 03 09.6101337312 +44 31 52.682601288   11.08 12.92 9.94   ~ 2084 1
176 SN 2003ie SN* 12 03 18.15 +44 31 34.6     15.2     SNIIP 35 1
177 SN 1999bg SN* 12 04 07.26 +62 30 00.1     15.5     SNIIP 28 1
178 IC 758 G 12 04 11.875 +62 30 19.29   14.4       ~ 55 0
179 SN 2002E SN* 12 08 52.90 -09 02 13.2       16.8   SNII 8 1
180 NGC 4129 EmG 12 08 53.2094535672 -09 02 11.691291192   13.3   12.36 12.6 ~ 61 0
181 SN 2003J SN* 12 10 57.72 +50 28 31.8     16.7     SNIIP 22 1
182 NGC 4157 GiP 12 11 04.365 +50 29 04.85 12.48 12.15 11.35     ~ 328 2
183 SN 1999B SN* 12 11 16.11 +74 48 06.9     16.9     SNII 9 1
184 UGC 7189 G 12 11 18.666 +74 48 29.65   14.8       ~ 27 0
185 NGC 4242 GiG 12 17 30.1835103480 +45 37 09.508940220   11.37 10.83     ~ 247 1
186 SN 2002bu SN* 12 17 37.18 +45 38 47.4     15.5     SNIIn? 52 2
187 SN 1999ev SN* 12 19 48.21336 +29 37 21.3492     14.4     SNIIP 45 1
188 NGC 4274 LIN 12 19 50.5930710456 +29 36 53.238538764 11.78 11.34 10.41     ~ 235 1
189 M 61 Sy2 12 21 54.9282582888 +04 28 25.597367184 10.07 10.18 9.65     ~ 940 2
190 SN 2006ov SN* 12 21 55.30 +04 29 16.7     14.9     SNIIP 62 1
191 SN 1999gn SN* 12 21 57.04 +04 27 45.7     16.0     SNIIP 33 1
192 SN 2003bk SN* 12 22 42.14 +09 20 01.2     17.0     SNII 14 1
193 NGC 4316 GiG 12 22 42.221 +09 19 58.12   14.0       ~ 145 0
194 SN 2006X SN* 12 22 53.93 +15 48 32.0     15.3     SNIa 304 1
195 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9299993592 +15 49 20.296257960 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1747 2
196 SN 2005kl SN* 12 24 35.68 +39 23 03.5     14.6     SNIc 38 1
197 NGC 4369 GiG 12 24 36.204 +39 22 58.73   12.3       ~ 184 1
198 NAME M85 OT2006-1 No* 12 25 23.82 +18 10 56.2     19.30     ~ 62 1
199 M 85 GiP 12 25 24.053 +18 11 27.89   10.2       ~ 625 0
200 IC 3311 GiG 12 25 33.102 +12 15 37.02   14.87       ~ 111 1
201 SN 2004gk SN* 12 25 33.21 +12 15 39.9     13.3     SNIc 33 1
202 SN 1998bn SN* 12 29 18.80 -23 09 50.5     17.4     SNIa 14 1
203 NGC 4462 G 12 29 21.1323465768 -23 10 00.017914188   12.81 11.54 11.26   ~ 72 0
204 NGC 4490 GiP 12 30 36.368 +41 38 37.07 10.03 10.22 9.79     ~ 551 3
205 SN 2008ax SN* 12 30 40.80 +41 38 16.1   23.6 23.5 14.1 22.6 SNIIb 235 1
206 NGC 4523 GiG 12 33 47.9911135872 +15 10 06.049286292   15.1       ~ 161 0
207 SN 1999gq SN* 12 33 48.32 +15 10 48.2     14.5     SNIIP 21 1
208 NGC 4527 GiP 12 34 08.496 +02 39 13.72   12.4       ~ 515 2
209 SN 2004gn SN* 12 34 12.10 +02 39 34.4     16.6     SNIc 25 1
210 NGC 4589 LIN 12 37 24.9947272584 +74 11 30.861224124   12.0       ~ 275 1
211 SN 2005cz SN* 12 37 27.85 +74 11 24.5     16.0     SNIb 53 1
212 SN 2004W SN* 12 43 36.52 +11 31 50.8     18.8     SNIa 22 1
213 M 60 GiP 12 43 39.9708251928 +11 33 09.688174056   10.3       ~ 1306 1
214 SN 2006my SN* 12 43 40.74 +16 23 14.1     15.3     SNIIP 49 1
215 NGC 4651 LIN 12 43 42.6376070448 +16 23 36.002649300   11.30 10.92 10.42 9.84 ~ 488 0
216 SN 2006tf SN* 12 46 15.81 +11 25 55.4     16.7     SNIIn 96 1
217 SN 1999gs SN* 12 50 26.28 +25 28 16.5     19.3     SNIa: 10 1
218 NGC 4725 Sy2 12 50 26.5716367992 +25 30 02.733090588   13.45 12.44     ~ 653 2
219 NGC 4900 EmG 13 00 39.1193785512 +02 30 05.154593868   12.8       ~ 241 0
220 SN 1999br SN* 13 00 41.80 +02 29 45.8     17.5     SNIIPp 159 1
221 SN 2005ap SN* 13 01 14.84 +27 43 31.4       18.20   SLSNIc 131 1
222 SN 2005af SN* 13 04 44.06 -49 33 59.8     12.8     SNIIP 54 1
223 NGC 4945 Sy2 13 05 27.279 -49 28 04.44   9.31 14.40 7.55   ~ 1375 2
224 NGC 4981 GiG 13 08 48.7426150512 -06 46 38.957361240   12.1   10.91 11.7 ~ 156 0
225 SN 2007C SN* 13 08 49.30 -06 47 01.0 18.1 17.1 15.9     SNIb 48 1
226 SN 2001gd SN* 13 13 23.89 +36 38 17.7     16.5     SNIIb 57 1
227 NGC 5033 Sy1 13 13 27.535 +36 35 37.14   11.01 12.03 9.73   ~ 829 3
228 SN 2004ab SN* 13 16 58.18 -16 37 52.7     14.7     SNIa 18 1
229 NGC 5054 GiP 13 16 58.488 -16 38 05.46   11.3   10.36 10.7 ~ 185 1
230 SN 2005cn SN* 13 18 00.46 -26 48 33.1     14.6     SNIa 9 1
231 NGC 5061 GiG 13 18 05.054 -26 50 14.00   11.18 10.41 9.66   ~ 164 0
232 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4098 4
233 SN 2005cs SN* 13 29 53.37 +47 10 28.2   14.5       SNIIP 370 1
234 NGC 5303 GiP 13 47 44.9986962336 +38 18 16.454895768   12.9       ~ 81 0
235 SN 2003ed SN* 13 47 45.36 +38 18 20.3     15.2     SNIIb 19 1
236 SN 2003gm SN* 13 52 51.72 -01 06 39.2     17.0     SNII? 32 2
237 NGC 5334 LSB 13 52 54.4632396696 -01 06 52.604999568   12.0   12.3 12.1 ~ 159 0
238 NGC 5338 G 13 53 26.5503668640 +05 12 27.975949560   14.3       ~ 105 0
239 SN 2006E SN* 13 53 28.65 +05 12 22.8     14.3     SNIa 26 1
240 SN 2004cm SN* 14 07 24.91 +55 06 10.0           SNIIP 13 1
241 NGC 5486 LSB 14 07 25.027 +55 06 10.52   14.0       ~ 87 1
242 SN 2007it SN* 14 18 25.63 -43 22 53.8     13.5     SNII 43 1
243 NGC 5530 G 14 18 27.10 -43 23 14.8   11.78 11.00 10.84 11.4 ~ 82 0
244 SN 2007af SN* 14 22 21.03 -00 23 37.6     15.4     SNIa 150 1
245 NGC 5584 EmG 14 22 23.811 -00 23 14.82   12.80   12.0 11.8 ~ 244 0
246 UGC 9299 GiG 14 29 34.5926526984 -00 01 05.660319828   13.8   14.0 14.0 ~ 82 0
247 SN 2002ao SN* 14 29 35.74 -00 00 55.8     14.3     SNIb/cpec 49 1
248 SN 2004G SN* 14 33 21.40 +04 26 49.5     17.2     SNII 22 1
249 NGC 5668 G 14 33 24.3419973936 +04 27 01.650790800   12.7       ~ 203 0
250 SN 2004dg SN* 14 59 58.96 +01 53 25.6     17.1     SNIIP 33 1
251 NGC 5806 AGN 15 00 00.4088018736 +01 53 28.779594792   12.40 11.70 10.94 11.6 ~ 266 1
252 NAME Ursa Major Cluster ClG 15 08.8 +67 07           ~ 402 0
253 SN 2005cf SN* 15 21 33.12 -07 26 57.1   13.54       SNIa 261 1
254 MCG-01-39-003 GiP 15 21 33.377 -07 26 51.65   15       ~ 60 0
255 SN 2001X SN* 15 21 55.45 +05 03 42.1     17.0     SNIIP 38 1
256 NGC 5921 G 15 21 56.561 +05 04 13.94   12.7       ~ 267 0
257 IC 1158 G 16 01 34.072 +01 42 28.19   13.2   13.3 12.9 ~ 84 0
258 NGC 6118 EmG 16 21 48.6065282088 -02 17 00.680742060   13.20   12.0 11.7 ~ 192 0
259 SN 2004dk SN* 16 21 48.93 -02 16 17.3   17.789 17.6     SNIb 74 1
260 SN 2004A SN* 16 43 01.90 +36 50 12.5     15.7     SNIIP 67 1
261 NGC 6207 GiC 16 43 03.750 +36 49 56.73   12.189 11.651 11.240 10.691 ~ 231 0
262 UGC 10862 G 17 28 08.9372034384 +07 25 20.329142484   15.00       ~ 66 1
263 SN 2004ao SN* 17 28 09.35 +07 24 55.5     14.9     SNIb 38 1
264 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13083 0
265 NAME Arches Cluster Cl* 17 45 50.5 -28 49 28           ~ 689 0
266 NGC 6643 G 18 19 46.370 +74 34 06.23   11.80       ~ 296 1
267 SN 2008bo SN* 18 19 54.41 +74 34 21.0           SNIIb 48 1
268 NGC 6744 GiG 19 09 46.1335950504 -63 51 26.897079024   9.28 8.25 8.08 9.6 ~ 253 0
269 SN 2005at SN* 19 09 53.57 -63 49 22.8     14.3     SNIc 30 1
270 * P Cyg s*b 20 17 47.2020844 +38 01 58.552724 4.66 5.24 4.82 4.28 4.02 B1-2Ia-0ep 1154 1
271 SN 2002hh SN* 20 34 44.29 +60 07 19.0     17.18     SNIIP 140 1
272 SN 2008S ev 20 34 45.33 +60 05 58.4   19.89 18.79 17.93   SNIIn? 229 1
273 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2384 2
274 SN 2004et SN* 20 35 25.33 +60 07 17.7   12.88       SNIIP 450 1
275 SN 1980K SN* 20 35 30.07 +60 06 23.7   11.6       SNIIL 448 1
276 SN 2000E SN* 20 37 13.77 +66 05 50.2   12.85       SNIa 85 1
277 NGC 6951 Sy2 20 37 14.1228088488 +66 06 20.049916392   11.64 10.65     ~ 511 2
278 SN 1999el SN* 20 37 18.03 +66 06 11.9     14.9     SNIIn 66 1
279 UGC 12182 G 22 45 38.0005073448 +73 09 43.818943896   15.5       ~ 22 0
280 SN 2006fp ev 22 45 41.13 +73 09 47.8           SNIIn? 18 1
281 ESO 406-27 GiG 22 56 41.2507536815 -36 46 21.677726835   13.85   14.0 14.0 ~ 68 1
282 SN 2007oc SN* 22 56 41.77 -36 46 22.3     13.6     SNIIP 20 1
283 NGC 7424 GiG 22 57 18.3924511080 -41 04 14.124670032   10.88 10.38 10.02 10.9 ~ 206 0
284 SN 2001ig SN* 22 57 30.69 -41 02 25.9     14.5     SNIIb 158 1
285 SN 2004cz SN* 23 12 43.22 -37 12 58.7     15.0     SNIIP 5 1
286 ESO 407-9 G 23 12 44.91 -37 12 28.5   14.09   12.94 13.7 ~ 45 1
287 SN 2002gd SN* 23 14 37.01 +04 30 06.1     16.7     SNII 54 1
288 SN 2007le SN* 23 38 48.45 -06 31 21.7     15.2     SNIa 118 1
289 NGC 7721 GiG 23 38 48.6179569416 -06 31 04.349189496   12.4   12.2 11.9 ~ 134 0
290 UGC 12846 G 23 55 46.025 +18 25 33.60   17       ~ 57 0
291 SN 2007od SN* 23 55 48.68 +18 24 54.8       14.4   SNIIP 119 1
292 NGC 7793 GiG 23 57 49.7540045856 -32 35 27.701550744 10.26 9.74 9.28 9.06 9.7 ~ 1028 2
293 SN 2008bk SN* 23 57 50.42 -32 33 21.5           SNIIP 119 2
294 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7715 0

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2022.08.09-03:40:46

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