2009ApJS..181..135H


Query : 2009ApJS..181..135H

2009ApJS..181..135H - Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser., 181, 135-182 (2009/March-0)

Dissipation and extra light in galactic nuclei. II. "Cusp" ellipticals.

HOPKINS P.F., COX T.J., DUTTA S.N., HERNQUIST L., KORMENDY J. and LAUER T.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

We study the origin and properties of "extra" or "excess" central light in the surface brightness profiles of cusp or power-law elliptical galaxies. Dissipational mergers give rise to two-component profiles: an outer profile established by violent relaxation acting on stars already present in the progenitor galaxies prior to the final stages of the merger, and an inner stellar population comprising the extra light, formed in a compact central starburst. By combining a large set of hydrodynamical simulations with data that span a broad range of profiles at various masses, we show that observed cusp ellipticals appear consistent with the predicted "extra light" structure, and we use our simulations to motivate a two-component description of the observations that allows us to examine how the properties and mass of this component scale with, e.g., the mass, gas content, and other properties of the galaxies. We show how to robustly separate the physically meaningful extra light and outer, violently relaxed profile, and demonstrate that the observed cusps and "extra light" are reliable tracers of the degree of dissipation in the spheroid-forming merger. We show that the typical degree of dissipation is a strong function of stellar mass, roughly tracing the observed gas fractions of disks of the same mass over the redshift range z ∼ 0-2. We demonstrate a correlation between the strength of this component and effective radius at fixed mass, in the sense that systems with more dissipation are more compact, sufficient to explain the discrepancy in the maximum phase-space and mass densities of ellipticals and their progenitor spirals. We show that the outer shape of the light profile in simulated and observed systems (when fit to properly account for the central light) does not depend on mass, with a mean outer Sérsic index ∼2.5. We also explore how this relates to, e.g., the shapes, kinematic properties, and stellar population gradients of ellipticals. Extra light contributes to making remnants rounder and diskier, and imprints stellar population gradients. Simulations with the gas content needed to match observed surface brightness profiles reproduce the observed age, metallicity, and color gradients of cusp ellipticals, and we make predictions for how these can be used as tracers of the degree of dissipation in spheroid formation.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): cosmology: theory - galaxies: active - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: nuclei - quasars: general

Nomenclature: Table 1: [LFR2007] ANNNN-M1 N=4 added.

Simbad objects: 137

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Number of rows : 137
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 Mrk 334 Sy1 00 03 09.6087980256 +21 57 36.971989884   15.30 14.62     ~ 195 0
2 NGC 34 Sy2 00 11 06.612 -12 06 28.33   14.14 13.52     ~ 334 0
3 IC 51 IG 00 46 24.215 -13 26 32.63   13.41   12.69 12.8 ~ 85 0
4 ACO 147 ClG 01 08 10 +02 10.0           ~ 110 0
5 ACO 160 ClG 01 12 59.572 +15 29 28.65           ~ 167 0
6 NGC 455 IG 01 15 57.6477696600 +05 10 43.224781008   13.9       ~ 41 0
7 MCG+00-04-111 BiC 01 23 26.4238486128 +01 42 20.741450292   15.5       ~ 32 0
8 ACO 189 ClG 01 23 40.4 +01 38 38           ~ 100 1
9 NGC 596 GiG 01 32 51.9046959816 -07 01 53.646821220   11.5       ~ 231 0
10 NGC 636 GiG 01 39 06.5293238064 -07 30 45.475975296   12.5       ~ 183 0
11 ACO 261 ClG 01 51 26 -02 14.2           ~ 45 0
12 MCG+00-05-040 BiC 01 51 27.2163836496 -02 15 31.690295352   15   13.39   ~ 21 0
13 Mrk 1014 Sy1 01 59 50.2534701768 +00 23 40.864244784   16.08 15.87     ~ 547 0
14 NGC 821 G 02 08 21.1358498040 +10 59 41.832436704   12.210 11.310 10.739 9.744 ~ 556 0
15 NGC 828 rG 02 10 09.5469097104 +39 11 25.233638244   13.0       ~ 154 1
16 UGC 2238 G 02 46 17.482 +13 05 44.33   15.2       ~ 118 1
17 NGC 1172 GiP 03 01 36.0605047968 -14 50 11.499147312   12.87       ~ 143 0
18 NGC 1199 GiP 03 03 38.4220343160 -15 36 48.461862600   13.99 12.97 12.31 11.59 ~ 178 1
19 NGC 1210 G 03 06 45.3516825024 -25 42 58.855024728   13.70   12.54   ~ 39 0
20 ACO 419 ClG 03 08 15.85 -23 41 29.0           ~ 58 0
21 2MASX J03082879-2336527 G 03 08 28.8068927256 -23 36 52.944253164   15.55       ~ 19 0
22 ESO 481-22 G 03 20 40.3202584128 -22 55 52.864743900   14.54   13.22   ~ 24 0
23 NGC 1400 EmG 03 39 30.851 -18 41 17.25 12.48 12.01 10.96 10.45   ~ 288 1
24 NGC 1427 GiG 03 42 19.4455150392 -35 23 33.169251120   11.89   10.44   ~ 265 0
25 NGC 1426 GiG 03 42 49.0997091480 -22 06 30.173615028   12.21 11.44 10.90   ~ 189 0
26 NGC 1439 GiG 03 44 49.9398454104 -21 55 14.341002960   12.23   10.86   ~ 165 0
27 NGC 1614 AGN 04 34 00.027 -08 34 44.57   14.66 13.99     ~ 644 0
28 MCG-02-13-040a IG 05 04 53.042 -10 14 52.56   15   14.22   ~ 51 1
29 ESO 307-25 IG 06 13 47.6258341728 -37 40 36.600431556   14.76   12.95   ~ 24 0
30 NGC 2314 GiG 07 10 32.5398383160 +75 19 36.192302256   13.1       ~ 77 1
31 NGC 2434 GiG 07 34 51.1504542360 -69 17 02.996020032 12.82 12.50 11.26 10.84   ~ 181 1
32 NGC 2418 IG 07 36 37.4992142280 +17 53 01.870386972   13.7       ~ 60 0
33 Mrk 84 G 07 55 06.2084298888 +55 42 13.786862652   13.6       ~ 42 0
34 NGC 2534 LIN 08 12 54.1596279408 +55 40 19.431713532 15.43 15.13 13.59     ~ 58 0
35 NGC 2623 LIN 08 38 24.016 +25 45 16.29 14.10 13.99 13.36     ~ 469 1
36 UGC 4635 LIN 08 51 54.8217436056 +40 50 09.219189192   15.2       ~ 26 0
37 NGC 2655 LIN 08 55 37.731 +78 13 23.10   12.03 11.08     ~ 277 1
38 NGC 2693 GiG 08 56 59.2620417624 +51 20 50.738224092 13.45 12.84 11.88     ~ 121 1
39 NGC 2744 GiG 09 04 39.0017418744 +18 27 51.863760756   13.7       ~ 52 0
40 NGC 2768 SyG 09 11 37.504 +60 02 13.95 11.30 10.84 9.87     ~ 486 2
41 NGC 2778 GiP 09 12 24.3741783168 +35 01 39.140496840   13.1       ~ 273 0
42 NGC 2782 Sy2 09 14 05.120 +40 06 49.68 12.29 12.30 11.63     ~ 448 3
43 NGC 2914 LIN 09 34 02.7855845040 +10 06 31.380212052   13.7       ~ 64 0
44 UGC 5101 Sy1 09 35 51.6045544584 +61 21 11.589382368   15.20 15.50     ~ 544 4
45 NGC 2974 Sy2 09 42 33.2918467632 -03 41 57.038311068   12.19   10.77   ~ 425 0
46 ESO 435-16 EmG 09 58 46.223 -28 37 18.86   13.43   12.25 13.0 ~ 44 2
47 ACO 912 ClG 10 01 09.54 -00 04 47.0           ~ 55 0
48 2MASX J10010952-0004460 BiC 10 01 09.5432169528 -00 04 46.263269676   15.13       ~ 24 0
49 NGC 3193 GiP 10 18 24.884 +21 53 38.32 12.29 11.83 10.88 12.19   ~ 279 1
50 NGC 3256 IG 10 27 51.284 -43 54 13.55   11.83 11.33 10.62 11.9 ~ 807 2
51 NGC 3309 GiG 10 36 35.6607096792 -27 31 05.732321664   11.98 11.78 10.34 10.51 ~ 154 0
52 NGC 3311 BiC 10 36 42.821 -27 31 42.02   11.93 10.93 10.00 9.67 ~ 286 2
53 NGC 3310 AGN 10 38 45.85707 +53 30 11.8940   12.45 12.15     ~ 758 1
54 UGC 5814 IG 10 42 38.1365126688 +77 29 41.422855524 16.95 16.58 14.77     ~ 40 0
55 NGC 3377 GiP 10 47 42.400 +13 59 08.30 11.55 11.24 10.38     ~ 752 1
56 NGC 3597 EmG 11 14 41.9796496464 -23 43 39.573399828   13.62   12.46   ~ 124 0
57 NGC 3605 GiG 11 16 46.5896102400 +18 01 01.777666908   12.7       ~ 249 0
58 NGC 3610 GiG 11 18 25.2827189856 +58 47 10.433735988   11.4       ~ 296 0
59 IC 2738 BiC 11 21 23.0550101136 +34 21 24.334637616   15.3       ~ 45 1
60 NGC 3656 GiP 11 23 38.6139450288 +53 50 31.100522064 14.50 14.25 12.75     ~ 133 1
61 ACO 1308 ClG 11 32 58.53 -03 53 14.2           ~ 66 0
62 NGC 3818 GiG 11 41 57.3563891040 -06 09 20.459153376   13   11.78   ~ 174 0
63 NGC 3894 SyG 11 48 50.3462619432 +59 24 56.450580480   12.9   11.57   ~ 226 1
64 NGC 3904 GiG 11 49 13.206 -29 16 36.09   11.82 10.96 10.29   ~ 150 0
65 NGC 3923 GiG 11 51 01.783 -28 48 22.36 11.41 10.59 9.80 8.88   ~ 420 1
66 NGC 3921 IG 11 51 06.8803989360 +55 04 43.414457484   13.4 12.64     ~ 241 0
67 NGC 3962 LIN 11 54 40.0986420456 -13 58 30.234748836   13.16 12.16 11.15   ~ 148 0
68 NGC 4004 H2G 11 58 05.2253666472 +27 52 43.761225324   14.0       ~ 105 0
69 ESO 379-22 EmG 12 01 20.665 -33 52 35.26   14.08 14.46 12.94   ~ 33 0
70 NGC 4125 GiP 12 08 06.017 +65 10 26.88 11.14 10.65 9.72     ~ 413 2
71 NGC 4194 AGN 12 14 09.615 +54 31 35.93   13.79 13.30     ~ 436 2
72 NGC 4318 GiG 12 22 43.2906579576 +08 11 53.850831504   14.1       ~ 127 0
73 M 85 GiP 12 25 24.053 +18 11 27.89   10.2       ~ 627 0
74 NGC 4387 GiG 12 25 41.6768484264 +12 48 37.804615956 13.42 13.01 12.12   10.87 ~ 380 1
75 NAME Virgo Cluster ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24           ~ 6324 0
76 NGC 4441 GiG 12 27 20.402 +64 48 05.64   13.5       ~ 75 0
77 NGC 4434 GiG 12 27 36.6771662112 +08 09 15.640206876   13.2       ~ 244 0
78 NGC 4458 GiP 12 28 57.5613938232 +13 14 30.946545276 13.27 12.93 12.07     ~ 402 2
79 NGC 4459 H2G 12 29 00.0329905416 +13 58 42.826603332   11.6       ~ 518 0
80 NGC 4464 GiG 12 29 21.2937802368 +08 09 23.807609316   13.5       ~ 224 0
81 NGC 4467 GiG 12 29 30.2447376768 +07 59 34.273371336   15.2       ~ 171 0
82 2MASX J12293498+0803286 G 12 29 34.9891966080 +08 03 28.781563608           ~ 81 0
83 NGC 4473 GiG 12 29 48.878 +13 25 45.55 11.60 11.16 10.20     ~ 624 1
84 NGC 4476 GiG 12 29 59.0772974472 +12 20 55.292203464 13.28 13.01 12.19     ~ 307 1
85 NGC 4478 GiP 12 30 17.4160005576 +12 19 42.790577160 12.82 12.36 11.45   10.17 ~ 481 1
86 NGC 4494 GiP 12 31 24.0391348536 +25 46 30.071664120   10.55 9.74     ~ 462 0
87 IC 798 GiG 12 32 33.4026417888 +15 24 55.432700280   15.3       ~ 95 0
88 NGC 4515 GiG 12 33 04.9652329656 +16 15 55.889535096   13.3       ~ 140 0
89 2MASX J12353723+1222554 GiP 12 35 37.2512550384 +12 22 55.234598772   15.41       ~ 89 0
90 NGC 4551 GiP 12 35 37.9542692328 +12 15 50.284593432 13.49 12.97 12.02     ~ 342 1
91 NGC 4564 GiG 12 36 26.9869512504 +11 26 21.204472848 12.51 12.05 11.12     ~ 578 1
92 IC 3653 GiG 12 41 15.7273825296 +11 23 13.997694300   14.7       ~ 108 0
93 M 59 GiG 12 42 02.2581375168 +11 38 48.909507756   11.0       ~ 675 0
94 NGC 4660 GiP 12 44 31.9814021280 +11 11 25.739106972   12.1       ~ 408 0
95 NGC 4697 GiG 12 48 35.8981498824 -05 48 02.482374564   10.97   9.83   ~ 835 0
96 NGC 4742 GiG 12 51 48.0416784480 -10 27 17.196625800   12   11.55   ~ 216 1
97 Mrk 231 Sy1 12 56 14.2341182928 +56 52 25.238373852   14.68 13.84     ~ 1914 3
98 ESO 269-20 GiG 12 58 08.042 -43 19 47.17   14.53   13.29   ~ 21 0
99 ESO 507-70 SyG 13 02 52.3177169808 -23 55 17.932558692   14.77 14.78 13.24   ~ 111 0
100 NGC 5018 GiP 13 13 01.0452720960 -19 31 05.649751992   11.71   10.31   ~ 293 1
101 IC 883 SBG 13 20 35.380 +34 08 21.84   14.8       ~ 387 1
102 NGC 5127 LIN 13 23 45.0315298080 +31 33 56.527040808   13.9       ~ 170 0
103 NAME Centaurus A Sy2 13 25 27.6039817176 -43 01 09.493008456   8.18 6.84 6.66   ~ 4286 3
104 ACO 1836 ClG 14 01 40 -11 36.5           ~ 77 0
105 NGC 5444 GiG 14 03 24.1287100728 +35 07 55.506515412   12.8       ~ 79 1
106 NGC 5576 GiP 14 21 03.691 +03 16 15.78 12.25 11.85 10.96     ~ 315 1
107 ESO 511-35 IG 14 22 06.6122328120 -26 51 26.716546872   14.24   12.70   ~ 22 0
108 NGC 5638 GiP 14 29 40.3717451400 +03 13 59.987811648 12.57 12.14 11.20     ~ 235 2
109 2MASX J14524323+1654137 LIN 14 52 43.2586810440 +16 54 13.462211052   15.4       ~ 51 0
110 ACO 1983 ClG 14 52 44.0 +16 44 46           ~ 237 1
111 NGC 5812 GiP 15 00 55.708 -07 27 26.33   12   11.19   ~ 153 0
112 NGC 5831 GiG 15 04 07.0002600408 +01 13 11.705607012   13.1   11.19   ~ 286 0
113 NGC 5845 GiG 15 06 00.7823239488 +01 38 01.704838596   13.8 11.20 12.06 9.94 ~ 366 0
114 UGC 9829 GiG 15 23 01.5777215256 -01 20 49.837650972   15.3       ~ 36 0
115 NGC 6052 IG 16 05 12.8715178104 +20 32 32.607297132 13.01 13.44 13.00     ~ 341 2
116 UGC 10638 GiG 16 50 58.7959138560 +81 34 29.029137924   15.5       ~ 36 0
117 IC 4630 IG 16 55 09.5799007728 +26 39 46.541919240   14.8       ~ 48 0
118 Mrk 700 LIN 17 03 15.7160341128 +31 27 28.555153092   14.73 14.04     ~ 81 0
119 NGC 6482 GiG 17 51 48.8339247888 +23 04 18.889271112 12.71 12.35 11.45     ~ 200 1
120 NGC 6487 G 17 52 41.8351435368 +29 50 19.040192880   14.0       ~ 39 1
121 NGC 6598 G 18 08 56.0229611160 +69 04 04.677239388   14.2       ~ 18 0
122 ESO 462-15 G 20 23 13.8515900784 -27 42 52.348659840   12.92   11.37   ~ 48 0
123 ESO 341-4 IG 20 41 13.872 -38 11 36.38   13.40 12.75 12.35   ~ 44 0
124 ESO 286-19 LIN 20 58 26.8183783008 -42 38 59.411838156   14.79 14.79 14.20   ~ 271 0
125 NGC 7135 AGN 21 49 46.0013389728 -34 52 34.575955536   12.25 13.30 10.84   ~ 87 0
126 UGC 11905 G 22 05 54.580 +20 38 21.48   15.10       ~ 41 0
127 NGC 7252 IG 22 20 44.7748209648 -24 40 41.909518200 12.26 12.46 12.06 11.57   ~ 686 1
128 ESO 239-2 G 22 49 39.8505632256 -48 50 58.076200284   14.46       ~ 66 0
129 NGC 7562 GiP 23 15 57.4982037648 +06 41 15.227839176   13.0       ~ 159 0
130 IC 5298 Sy2 23 16 00.6756811155 +25 33 24.081139422   15.0       ~ 185 0
131 NGC 7585 IG 23 18 01.348 -04 39 01.07   12.46 18.7 11.23   ~ 102 0
132 NGC 7626 rG 23 20 42.524 +08 13 01.43   12.8       ~ 414 1
133 NGC 7727 GiP 23 39 53.870 -12 17 34.84   11   10.55   ~ 167 0
134 [LFR2007] A160-M1 GiC ~ ~           ~ 1 0
135 [LFR2007] A1836-M1 GiC ~ ~           ~ 1 0
136 [LFR2007] A147-M1 GiC ~ ~           ~ 1 0
137 [LFR2007] A1308-M1 GiC ~ ~           ~ 1 0

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2022.10.06-19:19:40

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