2009ApJ...696..484B


Query : 2009ApJ...696..484B

2009ApJ...696..484B - Astrophys. J., 696, 484-497 (2009/May-1)

Mid-infrared extinction mapping of infrared dark clouds: probing the initial conditions for massive stars and star clusters.

BUTLER M.J. and TAN J.C.

Abstract (from CDS):

Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are cold, dense regions of giant molecular clouds that are opaque at wavelengths ∼10 µm or more and thus appear dark against the diffuse Galactic background emission. They are thought to be the progenitors of massive stars and star clusters. We use 8 µm imaging data from Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire to make extinction maps of 10 IRDCs, selected to be relatively nearby and massive. The extinction mapping technique requires construction of a model of the Galactic IR background intensity behind the cloud, which is achieved by correcting for foreground emission and then interpolating from the surrounding regions. The correction for foreground emission can be quite large, up to ∼50% for clouds at ∼5 kpc distance, thus restricting the utility of this technique to relatively nearby clouds. We investigate three methods for the interpolation, finding systematic differences at about the 10% level, which, for fiducial dust models, corresponds to a mass surface density Σ = 0.013 g/cm2, above which we conclude that this extinction mapping technique attains validity. We examine the probability distribution function of Σ in IRDCs. From a qualitative comparison with numerical simulations of astrophysical turbulence, many clouds appear to have relatively narrow distributions suggesting relatively low (less than five) Mach numbers and/or dynamically strong magnetic fields. Given cloud kinematic distances, we derive cloud masses. Rathborne, Jackson, and Simon identified cores within the clouds and measured their masses via millimeter dust emission. For 43 cores, we compare these mass estimates with those derived from our extinction mapping, finding good agreement: typically factors of ≲2 difference for individual cores and an average systematic offset of ≲10% for the adopted fiducial assumptions of each method. We find tentative evidence for a systematic variation of these mass ratios as a function of core density, which is consistent with models of ice mantle formation on dust grains and subsequent grain growth by coagulation, and/or with a temperature decrease in the densest cores.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): dust, extinction - ISM: clouds - stars: formation

Nomenclature: Table 1: [BT2009] A N=10. Table 3: [BT2009] ANN N=74.

Simbad objects: 87

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Number of rows : 87
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 LDN 1544 DNe 05 04 16.6 +25 10 48           ~ 793 0
2 NAME [BM89] L1544 cor 05 04 22.5 +25 11 36           ~ 435 1
3 LDN 57 DNe 17 22 38.2 -23 49 34           ~ 300 1
4 AGAL G019.286+00.082 Y*O 18 25 52.11528 -12 04 49.8900           ~ 27 0
5 [BT2009] A4 mm 18 25 52.6 -12 44 37           ~ 7 0
6 MSXDC G019.27+0.07 DNe 18 25 54.0 -12 04 56           ~ 11 0
7 [CUS2014] G018.7344-0.2261 cor 18 25 56 -12 42.8           ~ 28 0
8 [RJS2006] MSXDC G019.27+00.07 MM1 MoC 18 25 58.29 -12 04 13.5           ~ 17 0
9 [RJS2006] MSXDC G018.82-00.28 MM4 MoC 18 26 15.14 -12 41 43.4           ~ 12 0
10 [RJS2006] MSXDC G018.82-00.28 MM6 MoC 18 26 19.04 -12 41 14.8           ~ 11 0
11 MSXDC G018.82-0.28 DNe 18 26 19.8 -12 41 30           ~ 11 0
12 [RJS2006] MSXDC G018.82-00.28 MM5 MoC 18 26 21.78 -12 41 10.2           ~ 10 0
13 [BT2009] A6 mm 18 26 23.4 -12 39 37           ~ 7 0
14 AGAL G028.324+00.161 cor 18 42 26.8 -04 01 30           ~ 20 0
15 AGAL G028.341+00.142 cor 18 42 32.4 -04 01 16           ~ 17 0
16 IRAS 18399-0405 Y*O 18 42 37.12488 -04 02 02.2020           ~ 27 0
17 AGAL G028.364+00.121 cor 18 42 40.01 -04 00 34.4           ~ 27 0
18 AGAL G028.418+00.141 Y*O 18 42 41.8 -03 57 08           ~ 14 0
19 AGAL G028.354+00.102 Y*O 18 42 44.02 -04 01 54.5           ~ 26 0
20 AGAL G028.324+00.067 Y*O 18 42 46.7 -04 04 08           ~ 52 0
21 AGAL G028.354+00.072 MoC 18 42 49.34 -04 02 27.3           ~ 33 0
22 AGAL G028.244+00.012 smm 18 42 49.7 -04 09 54           ~ 23 0
23 AGAL G028.344+00.061 cor 18 42 50.45 -04 03 17.7           ~ 78 0
24 NAME Dragon Nebula DNe 18 42 50.6 -04 03 30           ~ 132 0
25 AGAL G028.398+00.081 cor 18 42 51.86 -03 59 43.3           ~ 50 0
26 [RJS2006] MSXDC G028.37+00.07 MM14 MoC 18 42 52.59 -04 02 44.3           ~ 17 0
27 AGAL G028.361+00.054 cor 18 42 54.37 -04 02 31.7           ~ 32 1
28 AGAL G028.291+00.007 cor 18 42 56.3 -04 07 31           ~ 24 0
29 AGAL G028.581+00.146 cor 18 42 58.2 -03 48 20           ~ 19 0
30 AGAL G028.388+00.037 MoC 18 42 59.99 -04 01 33.1           ~ 25 0
31 AGAL G028.321-00.009 smm 18 43 03.1 -04 06 24           ~ 22 0
32 AGAL G028.687+00.177 cor 18 43 03.1 -03 41 41           ~ 19 0
33 [RJS2006] MSXDC G028.67+00.13 MM7 MoC 18 43 06.71 -03 45 09.9           ~ 9 0
34 SDC G28.660+0.142 DNe 18 43 07.75 -03 44 08.4           ~ 7 0
35 MSXDC G028.67+0.13 DNe 18 43 07.9 -03 44 29           ~ 12 0
36 [BT2009] C14 mm 18 43 09.9 -04 06 52           ~ 8 0
37 JCMTLSP J184310.2-034518 MoC 18 43 10.12 -03 45 15.8           ~ 12 0
38 [BT2009] E6 mm 18 43 12.2 -03 45 39           ~ 6 0
39 AGAL G028.416-00.007 Y*O 18 43 12.9 -04 01 16           ~ 14 0
40 AGAL G028.717+00.146 smm 18 43 13.2 -03 41 03           ~ 9 0
41 AGAL G028.541-00.237 Y*O 18 44 15.38 -04 00 50.7           ~ 19 0
42 [RJS2006] MSXDC G028.53-00.25 MM2 MoC 18 44 16.43 -03 59 22.3           ~ 14 0
43 AGAL G028.526-00.251 Y*O 18 44 17.05 -04 02 01.5           ~ 28 0
44 MSXDC G028.53-0.25 DNe 18 44 17.1 -03 59 37           ~ 20 0
45 AGAL G028.564-00.236 cor 18 44 17.69 -03 59 26.5           ~ 43 0
46 [RJS2006] MSXDC G028.53-00.25 MM4 MoC 18 44 17.78 -04 00 12.4           ~ 13 0
47 [BT2009] D10 mm 18 44 17.8 -04 00 05           ~ 8 0
48 [RJS2006] MSXDC G028.53-00.25 MM10 MoC 18 44 18.29 -03 59 06.2           ~ 10 0
49 JCMTLSP J184419.4-035806 MoC 18 44 18.74 -03 58 13.7           ~ 14 0
50 [RJS2006] MSXDC G028.53-00.25 MM8 MoC 18 44 22.51 -04 01 53.5           ~ 10 0
51 AGAL G028.539-00.269 MoC 18 44 23.79 -04 02 11.5           ~ 16 0
52 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM8 mm 18 53 16.4 +01 26 20           ~ 32 0
53 AGAL G034.411+00.234 Y*O 18 53 18.0 +01 25 24           ~ 57 0
54 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM7 mm 18 53 18.3 +01 27 13           ~ 33 0
55 [ZYL2017] G34-6 MoC 18 53 18.42 +01 27 33.9           ~ 20 0
56 [ZYL2017] G34-9 MoC 18 53 18.51 +01 28 30.5           ~ 26 0
57 [ZYL2017] G34-2 cor 18 53 18.6 +01 24 40           ~ 43 0
58 MSXDC G034.43+0.24 MoC 18 53 18.9 +01 26 39           ~ 85 0
59 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM4 mm 18 53 19.0 +01 24 08           ~ 21 0
60 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM5 mm 18 53 19.8 +01 23 30           ~ 15 0
61 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM3 mm 18 53 20.4 +01 28 23           ~ 38 0
62 [BT2009] H9 mm 18 56 41.2 +02 09 52           ~ 6 0
63 [BT2009] G1 mm 18 56 44.7 +01 20 42           ~ 8 0
64 IRAS 18542+0114 cor 18 56 48.27432 +01 18 47.1132           ~ 29 0
65 MSXDC G034.77-0.55 DNe 18 56 48.8 +01 23 21           ~ 17 0
66 [BT2009] G3 mm 18 56 48.9 +01 23 34           ~ 8 0
67 [BT2009] G2 mm 18 56 50.3 +01 23 16           ~ 28 0
68 [BT2009] H7 mm 18 56 59.2 +02 04 53           ~ 8 0
69 [BT2009] H8 mm 18 57 05.3 +02 06 29           ~ 5 0
70 [ZYL2017] G35-8 MoC 18 57 06.88 +02 08 44.8           ~ 14 0
71 [ZYL2017] G35-4 MoC 18 57 06.92 +02 08 20.9           ~ 15 0
72 [ZYL2017] G35-7 MoC 18 57 08.17 +02 10 51.8           ~ 21 0
73 [ZYL2017] G35-6 MoC 18 57 08.27 +02 08 57.7           ~ 15 0
74 [ZYL2017] G35-5 MoC 18 57 08.83 +02 08 24.3           ~ 15 0
75 MSXDC G035.39-0.33 MoC 18 57 09.0 +02 07 46           ~ 106 0
76 [ZYL2017] G35-9 MoC 18 57 11.37 +02 07 27.1           ~ 10 0
77 [RJS2006] MSXDC G038.95-00.47 MM4 mm 19 04 00.6 +05 09 06           ~ 8 0
78 JCMTSE J190403.4+050756 smm 19 04 03.4 +05 07 56           ~ 13 0
79 AGAL G038.957-00.466 Y*O 19 04 07.4 +05 08 48           ~ 22 0
80 [RJS2006] MSXDC G038.95-00.47 MM3 mm 19 04 07.4 +05 09 44           ~ 9 0
81 MSXDC G038.95-0.47 DNe 19 04 08.3 +05 08 49           ~ 15 0
82 [BT2009] J2 mm 19 29 00.6 +17 55 11           ~ 5 0
83 MSXDC G053.11+0.05 DNe 19 29 18.1 +17 54 33           ~ 13 0
84 AGAL G053.141+00.069 cor 19 29 18.2185 +17 56 18.996           ~ 25 1
85 [RJS2006] MSXDC G053.11+00.05 MM2 mm 19 29 20.2 +17 57 06           ~ 9 0
86 [RJS2006] MSXDC G053.11+00.05 MM4 mm 19 29 20.4 +17 55 04           ~ 8 0
87 [BT2009] J3 mm 19 29 26.3 +17 54 53           ~ 6 0

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2022.09.27-03:12:46

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