2008ApJ...678..985B


Query : 2008ApJ...678..985B

2008ApJ...678..985B - Astrophys. J., 678, 985-1004 (2008/May-2)

The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects. I. H2 O and the 5-8 µm Bands.

BOOGERT A.C.A., PONTOPPIDAN K.M., KNEZ C., LAHUIS F., KESSLER-SILACCI J., VAN DISHOECK E.F., BLAKE G.A., AUGEREAU J.-C., BISSCHOP S.E., BOTTINELLI S., BROOKE T.Y., BROWN J., CRAPSI A., EVANS II N.J., FRASER H.J., GEERS V., HUARD T.L., JORGENSEN J.K., OBERG K.I., ALLEN L.E., HARVEY P.M., KOERNER D.W., MUNDY L.G., PADGETT D.L., SARGENT A.I. and STAPELFELDT K.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

To study the physical and chemical evolution of ices in solar-mass systems, a spectral survey is conducted of a sample of 41 low-luminosity YSOs (L∼0.1-10 L) using 3-38 µm Spitzer and ground-based spectra. The sample is complemented with previously published Spitzer spectra of background stars and with ISO spectra of well-studied massive YSOs (L∼105 L). The long-known 6.0 and 6.85 µm bands are detected toward all sources, with the Class 0-type YSOs showing the deepest bands ever observed. The 6.0 µm band is often deeper than expected from the bending mode of pure solid H2O. The additional 5-7 µm absorption consists of five independent components, which, by comparison to laboratory studies, must be from at least eight different carriers. Much of this absorption is due to simple species likely formed by grain surface chemistry, at abundances of 1%-30% for CH3OH, 3%-8% for NH3, 1%-5% for HCOOH, ∼6% for H2CO, and ∼0.3% for HCOO relative to solid H2O. The 6.85 µm band has one or two carriers, of which one may be less volatile than H2O. Its carrier(s) formed early in the molecular cloud evolution and do not survive in the diffuse ISM. If an NH+4-containing salt is the carrier, its abundance relative to solid H2 O is ∼7%, demonstrating the efficiency of low-temperature acid-base chemistry or cosmic-ray-induced reactions. Possible origins are discussed for enigmatic, very broad absorption between 5 and 8 µm. Finally, the same ices are observed toward massive and low-mass YSOs, indicating that processing by internal UV radiation fields is a minor factor in their early chemical evolution.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Astrochemistry - Infrared: ISM - Infrared: Stars - ISM: Abundances - ISM: Molecules - Stars: Formation

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/678/985): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat>

Simbad objects: 72

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Number of rows : 72
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 BCLMP 5 HII 01 33 58.57 +30 35 25.7           ~ 6 0
2 NAME W3 IRS 5 Y*O 02 25 40.54 +62 05 51.4           B1 342 0
3 NAME W 3 IRS 5 Cluster Cl* 02 25 42 +62 06.1           ~ 79 1
4 LDN 1448 DNe 03 22.5 +30 35           ~ 502 0
5 2MASS J03250943+3046215 Y*O 03 25 09.430 +30 46 21.58     19.5     ~ 91 0
6 IRAS 03235+3004 Y*O 03 26 37.425 +30 15 28.39           ~ 81 0
7 NAME LDN 1455 IRS 1 cor 03 27 39.08 +30 13 03.1           ~ 152 0
8 NAME LDN 1455 IRS 4 cor 03 27 43.23 +30 12 28.9           ~ 70 0
9 2MASS J03274767+3012043 Y*O 03 27 47.6828532408 +30 12 04.456916028     19.6     ~ 98 1
10 2MASS J03280041+3008012 Y*O 03 28 00.411 +30 08 01.28           ~ 48 0
11 LDN 1455 DNe 03 28 00.6480 +30 07 58.800           ~ 181 1
12 2MASS J03283450+3100510 Y*O 03 28 34.501 +31 00 51.01           ~ 71 0
13 IRAS 03271+3013 cor 03 30 15.159 +30 23 49.38           ~ 66 0
14 2MASS J03331284+3121241 Y*O 03 33 12.8440487256 +31 21 24.139522188           K0-M3 57 0
15 2MASS J03331667+3107548 Y*O 03 33 16.68 +31 07 54.9           ~ 115 2
16 JCMTSE J033317.8+310932 cor 03 33 17.85 +31 09 31.9           ~ 98 0
17 [HKM99] B1-b cor 03 33 20.32 +31 07 21.5           ~ 191 0
18 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1250 0
19 2MASS J03470544+3243084 Y*O 03 47 05.447 +32 43 08.43           ~ 55 0
20 IRAS 03445+3242 Y*O 03 47 41.603 +32 51 43.79           ~ 190 0
21 IRAS 04016+2610 Y*O 04 04 43.07064 +26 18 56.3904           ~ 247 0
22 LDN 1489 DNe 04 04 47.5 +26 19 42           ~ 215 0
23 NAME IRAS 04108+2803B Y*O 04 13 54.71688 +28 11 32.8992           K0-M3 38 0
24 IRAS 04108+2803 mul 04 13 54.9 +28 11 31           ~ 90 1
25 IRAS 04239+2436 Y*O 04 26 56.29704 +24 43 35.3280           ~ 152 0
26 [EM98] DG Tau B cRN Y*O 04 27 02.66088 +26 05 30.4548           ~ 160 0
27 Kim 1-38 * 04 39 38.8654791216 +26 11 26.646511596           K1III 129 0
28 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 4050 0
29 * eta01 Dor SB* 06 06 09.3817676280 -66 02 22.635231936   5.679 5.690     A0V 72 0
30 NAME Mon R2 IRS 3 Y*O 06 07 47.8 -06 22 55           ~ 140 0
31 RAFGL 989 Y*O 06 41 10.1587451112 +09 29 33.635220144   17.4 16.8 18.26 17.28 B2 255 0
32 2MASS J08254384-5100326 Y*O 08 25 43.85 -51 00 32.7           ~ 309 1
33 2MASS J12590656-7707401 Y*O 12 59 06.56 -77 07 40.1           K4.5 47 0
34 CG 12 CGb 13 57 42.2 -39 56 21           ~ 48 1
35 Barnard 228 cor 15 43 00.9 -34 08 48           ~ 65 0
36 IRAS 15398-3359 Y*? 15 43 02.21016 -34 09 07.7112       18.38 21.72 ~ 154 0
37 Elia 2-29 Y*O 16 27 09.43032 -24 37 18.7716           ~ 277 1
38 CRBR 2422.8-3423 Y*O 16 27 24.61320 -24 41 03.4080           ~ 87 1
39 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3416 1
40 LDN 43 DNe 16 34 29.3 -15 47 11           ~ 139 1
41 HBC 650 TT* 16 34 29.32 -15 47 01.4           K3.0 173 2
42 EM* LkHA 346 Y*O 17 11 17.2853820264 -27 25 08.241647988   15       ~ 37 1
43 [BHB2007] 10 Y*O 17 11 22.18 -27 26 02.0           ~ 21 0
44 2MASS J17112317-2724315 ** 17 11 23.17752 -27 24 31.5288           ~ 66 0
45 HD 161178 * 17 37 08.8834634616 +72 27 20.858215464   6.886 5.869     G9III 59 0
46 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13314 0
47 GCS 3 IR 17 46 15 -28 49.6           ~ 56 0
48 W 33a Y*O 18 14 39.0 -17 52 03           ~ 618 0
49 RAFGL 2136 Y*O 18 22 26.52888 -13 30 14.0400           ~ 274 0
50 NAME Serpens Cloud SFR 18 29 49 +01 14.8           ~ 1038 2
51 2MASS J18295571+0114315 Y*O 18 29 55.711 +01 14 31.50           ~ 38 0
52 HBC 672 Em* 18 29 56.8848005064 +01 14 46.304766672   17.6       K8.0 100 0
53 [EC89] SVS 4-5 Y*O 18 29 57.59 +01 13 00.6           ~ 33 1
54 IRAS 18274+0112 Y*O 18 29 57.73680 +01 14 05.6940           M4: 138 2
55 2MASS J18295785+0112514 Y*O 18 29 57.858 +01 12 51.40           ~ 60 3
56 [EC92] 95 Y*O 18 29 57.893 +01 12 46.25           K1.0 73 3
57 2MASS J18295820+0115216 Y*O 18 29 58.2037073472 +01 15 21.610474308           K7.0 39 0
58 CK 2 Y*O 18 30 00.618 +01 15 20.12           K5-M0III 52 0
59 RAFGL 7009S HII 18 34 20.911 -05 59 42.23           ~ 206 0
60 2MASS J19014805-3657219 Y*O 19 01 48.056 -36 57 21.95           ~ 99 0
61 CHLT 3 * 19 01 48.10 -36 57 22.7           K6V 32 0
62 V* V710 CrA Or* 19 01 50.67792 -36 58 09.6132           K7: 121 0
63 2MASS J19015545-3657231 Y*O 19 01 55.460 -36 57 23.13           ~ 92 2
64 [NWA2005] SMM 1B Y*O 19 01 56.41 -36 57 28.0           ~ 85 1
65 IRAS 18595-3712 Y*O 19 02 58.706 -37 07 34.67           ~ 44 0
66 LDN 1014 cor 21 24 05.9 +49 59 07           ~ 93 0
67 NAME LDN 1014 IRS Y*O 21 24 07.58 +49 59 08.9           ~ 78 0
68 NAME SH 2-140 IRS 1 Y*O 22 19 18.277 +63 18 45.82           ~ 195 0
69 NGC 7538 OpC 23 13 37 +61 30.0           ~ 855 1
70 IRAS 23118+6110 Y*O 23 14 01.63 +61 27 20.2           ~ 366 0
71 PSCz Q23238+7401 Y*O 23 25 46.65 +74 17 37.2           ~ 55 1
72 NAME Lockman Hole Northwest reg ~ ~           ~ 13 0

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2022.11.30-10:50:14

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