Astrophys. J., 643, 965-977 (2006/June-1)
Spectacular Spitzer images of the Trifid nebula: protostars in a young, massive-star-forming region.
RHO J., REACH W.T., LEFLOCH B. and FAZIO G.G.
Abstract (from CDS):
Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images of the Trifid Nebula (M20) reveal its spectacular appearance in infrared light, highlighting the nebula's special evolutionary stage. The images feature recently formed massive protostars and numerous young stellar objects, and a single O star that illuminates the surrounding molecular cloud from which it formed, and unveil large-scale, filamentary dark clouds. Multiple protostars are detected in the infrared, within the cold dust cores of TC3 and TC4, which were previously defined as Class 0. The cold dust continuum cores of TC1 and TC2 contain only one protostar each. The Spitzer color-color diagram allowed us to identify ∼160 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify them into different evolutionary stages. The diagram also revealed a unique group of YSOs that are bright at 24 µm but have the spectral energy distribution peaking at 5-8 µm. Despite expectation that Class 0 sources would be ``starless'' cores, the Spitzer images, with unprecedented sensitivity, uncover mid-infrared emission from these Class 0 protostars. The mid-infrared detections of Class 0 protostars show that the emission escapes the dense, cold envelope of young protostars. The mid-infrared emission of the protostars can be fit by two temperatures of 150 and 400 K; the hot core region is probably optically thin in the mid-infrared regime, and the size of hot core is much smaller than that of the cold envelope. The presence of multiple protostars within the cold cores of Class 0 objects implies that clustering occurs at this early stage of star formation. The most massive star in the TC3 cluster is located at the center of the cluster and at the bottom of the gravitational potential well.
ISM: H II Regions - Infrared: Stars - ISM: Individual: Name: Trifid Nebula - Stars: Formation
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/643/965): table1.dat table2.dat>
Table 1, col(1): [RRL2006] ClassI0 NN (Nos 1-37), [RRL2006] Hotex NN (Nos 1-13), [RRL2006] ClassII NNN (Nos 1-111) = Table 1, Col(2): SSTM20 JHHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s N=37+13+111. Table 2, col(1): [RRL2006] TCNA (Nos TC3A-TC3E, TC4A-TC4E, TC1, TC2) = Table 2, col(2): SSTM20 JHHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s N=12.
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