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2003A&A...407..791M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 407, 791-822 (2003/9-1)

An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters. I. Source lists and source counts for A370, A2218 and A2390.

METCALFE L., KNEIB J.-P., McBREEN B., ALTIERI B., BIVIANO A., DELANEY M., ELBAZ D., KESSLER M.F., LEECH K., OKUMURA K., OTT S., PEREZ-MARTINEZ R., SANCHEZ-FERNANDEZ C. and SCHULZ B.

Abstract (from CDS):

ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was used to perform a deep survey with ISOCAM through three massive gravitationally lensing clusters of galaxies. The total area surveyed depends on source flux, with nearly seventy square arcminutes covered for the brighter flux levels in maps centred on the three clusters Abell 370, Abell 2218 and Abell 2390. We present maps and photometry at 6.7µm (hereafter 7µm) and 14.3µm (hereafter 15µm), showing a total of 145 mid-infrared sources and the associated source counts. At 15µm these counts reach the faintest level yet recorded. Almost all of the sources have been confirmed on more than one infrared map and all are identified with counterparts in the optical or near-infrared. Detailed models of the three clusters have been used to correct for the effects of gravitational lensing on the background source population. Lensing by the clusters increases the sensitivity of the survey, and the weakest sources have lensing corrected fluxes of 5 and 18µJy at 7 and 15µm, respectively. Roughly 70% of the 15µm sources are lensed background galaxies. Of sources detected only at 7µm, 95% are cluster galaxies for this sample. Of fifteen SCUBA sources within the mapped regions of the three clusters seven were detected at 15 microns. The redshifts for five of these sources lie in the range 0.23 to 2.8, with a median value of 0.9. Flux selected subsets of the field sources above the 80% and 50% completeness limits were used to derive source counts to a lensing corrected sensitivity level of 30µJy at 15µm, and 14µJy at 7µm. The source counts, corrected for the effects of completeness, contamination by cluster sources and lensing, confirm and extend earlier findings of an excess by a factor of ten in the 15µm population with respect to source models with no evolution. The observed mid-infrared field sources occur mostly at redshifts between 0.4 and 1.5. For the counts at 7µm, integrating in the range 14µJy to 460µJy, we resolve (0.49±0.2)x10–9W/m2/sr of the infrared background light into discrete sources. At 15µm we include the counts from other extensive ISOCAM surveys to integrate over the range 30µJy to 50mJy, reaching two to three times deeper than the unlensed surveys to resolve (2.7±0.62)x10–9W/m2/sr of the infrared background light. These values correspond to 10% and 55%, respectively, of the upper limit to the infrared background light, derived from photon-photon pair production of the high energy gamma rays from BL-Lac sources on the infrared background photons. However, the recent detections of TeV gamma rays from the z=0.129 BL Lac H1426+428 suggest that the value for the 15µm background reported here is already sufficient to imply substantial absorption of TeV gamma rays from that source.

Journal keyword(s): surveys - galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 370 - galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 2218 - galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 2390 - gravitational lensing - infrared: galaxies

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/407/791): table4.dat table5.dat table6.dat table7.dat table8.dat table9.dat>

Nomenclature: Figs 4, 5, Tables 4, 7: [MKM2003] ISO ACO 370 NNa (Nos 1-25, 11b-11c ). Figs 6, 7, Tables 5, 8: [MKM 2003] ISO ACO 2218 NNa N=68 among (Nos 2-75) + (Nos 15a-15b, 36a-36b, 61a-61b, 73a-73b). Figs 8, 9, Tables 6, 9: [MKM2003] ISO A CO 2390 NNa N=37 among (Nos 2-49) + (Nos 8a-8b, 28a-28b, 42a-42b).

CDS comments: Table 2 : sources B NNN = LPS NNN. In reflist, Barvainis 1999 : ApJ is a misprint for AJ.