2002MNRAS.337.1118L


Query : 2002MNRAS.337.1118L

2002MNRAS.337.1118L - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 337, 1118-1138 (2002/December-2)

Bar strengths in spiral galaxies estimated from 2MASS images.

LAURIKAINEN E. and SALO H.

Abstract (from CDS):

Non-axisymmetric forces are presented for a sample of 107 spiral galaxies, of which 31 are barred (SB) and 53 show nuclear activity. As a data base we use JHK images from the 2 Micron All-sky Survey, and the non-axisymmetries are characterized by the ratio of the tangential force to the mean axisymmetric radial force field, following Buta & Block. Bar strengths have an important role in many extragalactic problems and therefore it is important to verify that the different numerical methods applied for calculating the forces give mutually consistent results. We apply both direct Cartesian integration and a polar grid integration utilizing a limited number of azimuthal Fourier components of density. We find that the bar strength is independent of the method used to evaluate the gravitational potential. However, because of the distance-dependent smoothing by Fourier decomposition, the polar method is more suitable for weak and noisy images. The largest source of uncertainty in the derived bar strength appears to be the uncertainty in the vertical scaleheight, which is difficult to measure directly for most galaxies. On the other hand, the derived bar strength is rather insensitive to the possible gradient in the vertical scaleheight of the disc or to the exact model of the vertical density distribution, provided that the same effective vertical dispersion is assumed in all models. In comparison with the pioneering study by Buta & Block, the bar strength estimate is improved here by taking into account the dependence of the vertical scaleheight on the Hubble type: we find that for thin discs bar strengths are stronger than for thick discs by an amount that may correspond to as much as one bar strength class.

We confirm the previous result by Buta and co-workers showing that the dispersion in bar strength is large among all the de Vaucouleurs optical bar classes. In the near-infrared 40 per cent of the galaxies in our sample have bars (showing constant phases in the m = 2 Fourier amplitudes in the bar region), while in the optical band one-third of these bars are obscured by dust. Significant non-axisymmetric forces can also be induced by the spiral arms, generally in the outer parts of the galactic discs, which may have important implications on galaxy evolution. Possible biases of the selected sample are also studied: we find that the number of bars identified drops rapidly when the inclination of the galactic disc is larger than 50°. A similar bias is found in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, which might be of interest when comparing bar frequencies at high and low redshifts.


Abstract Copyright: RAS

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: active - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: spiral - galaxies: statistics

Simbad objects: 118

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Number of rows : 118
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NGC 157 EmG 00 34 46.7879913696 -08 23 47.273597952   11.0 19.00 10.03 10.7 ~ 340 0
2 NGC 210 GiP 00 40 34.9927609368 -13 52 21.999585108   11.8   11.00 11.4 ~ 167 0
3 NGC 278 H2G 00 52 04.3452013728 +47 33 01.675026036   10.5       ~ 227 1
4 NGC 289 AGN 00 52 42.365 -31 12 20.99   11.36 13.44 10.38 11.4 ~ 219 0
5 NGC 309 EmG 00 56 42.6581930088 -09 54 49.952323224   12.7   11.76 12.4 ~ 155 0
6 NGC 578 G 01 30 28.548 -22 40 01.96   11.72 10.93 10.63 11.6 ~ 165 0
7 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.8965749232 +30 39 36.630403128 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5524 1
8 NGC 772 GiP 01 59 19.5557148984 +19 00 27.475677216 11.35 11.09 10.31 10.23 9.38 ~ 316 1
9 NGC 908 GiP 02 23 04.569 -21 14 01.86   11.03 10.18 9.84 10.6 ~ 184 1
10 NGC 1042 GiP 02 40 23.9724818544 -08 26 00.736256616 11.47 11.56 11.02 11.7 11.4 ~ 243 1
11 UGCA 39 GiG 02 41 55.092 +59 36 14.73   16       ~ 338 1
12 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.7091669408 -00 00 47.859690204 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4348 2
13 NGC 1084 GiG 02 45 59.926 -07 34 43.10 11.22 11.59 10.73 10.55 11.1 ~ 348 2
14 NGC 1097 LIN 02 46 19.059 -30 16 29.68 10.46 9.97 9.48 8.72 9.8 ~ 1259 3
15 NGC 1087 H2G 02 46 25.1550134904 -00 29 55.457857644   11.5   11.4 11.5 ~ 301 0
16 NGC 1187 EmG 03 02 37.5895048560 -22 52 02.479512648   11.41   10.43 11.2 ~ 207 1
17 NGC 1232 EmG 03 09 45.514 -20 34 45.48   10.67 9.87 9.53 10.2 ~ 278 0
18 NGC 1255 GiG 03 13 31.9885639248 -25 43 30.399262428   11.80   10.66 11.5 ~ 142 0
19 NGC 1300 GiP 03 19 41.0462219928 -19 24 40.187565432   11.16 10.42 9.90 10.7 ~ 485 0
20 NGC 1302 GiG 03 19 51.2026512864 -26 03 37.946814660   11.43   9.99 10.8 ~ 139 0
21 NGC 1309 GiG 03 22 06.5548977432 -15 23 59.791692912   12.08   12.5 11.7 ~ 205 0
22 NGC 1350 GiG 03 31 08.119 -33 37 43.10   11.20 10.52 9.77 10.6 ~ 171 0
23 NGC 1367 GiG 03 35 01.3451198496 -24 55 59.504904516   11.48   9.98 11.1 ~ 184 0
24 NGC 1385 EmG 03 37 28.323 -24 30 04.60 11.28 11.50 10.94 10.45 11.7 ~ 240 2
25 NGC 1398 GiG 03 38 52.130 -26 20 16.22   10.37   8.90 10.1 ~ 218 0
26 NGC 1433 GiG 03 42 01.4847418992 -47 13 18.929092656   10.84 9.99 9.61 10.2 ~ 344 0
27 NGC 1425 EmG 03 42 11.4831633240 -29 53 36.186684252   11.61   11.6 10.9 ~ 194 0
28 NGC 1559 GiG 04 17 35.7508602240 -62 47 01.251567384   11.19 10.45 10.11 10.4 ~ 255 1
29 NGC 1637 AGN 04 41 28.1926876152 -02 51 28.667815488   11.4   11.0 11.3 ~ 395 0
30 NGC 1792 EmG 05 05 14.4036930408 -37 58 50.064531168   10.68 10.18 9.53 10.4 ~ 216 1
31 NGC 1808 Sy2 05 07 42.343 -37 30 46.98 11.05 10.80 9.94 9.36 10.2 ~ 687 3
32 NGC 1832 G 05 12 03.3433348776 -15 41 16.021694220   12.2   11.07 11.8 ~ 232 1
33 NGC 2139 EmG 06 01 07.963 -23 40 20.35   12.10 11.71 11.28 12.1 ~ 140 0
34 NGC 2196 EmG 06 12 09.6565312104 -21 48 21.667049928   11.98   10.69 11.4 ~ 104 0
35 NGC 2280 EmG 06 44 49.0852522224 -27 38 18.562480188   11.13   9.77 11.3 ~ 127 0
36 NGC 2543 GiP 08 12 57.955 +36 15 16.23   12.70       ~ 150 1
37 NGC 2655 LIN 08 55 37.731 +78 13 23.10   12.03 11.08     ~ 275 1
38 NGC 2835 EmG 09 17 52.8523921416 -22 21 16.839119700   11.03   10.32 10.9 ~ 205 0
39 NGC 2841 LIN 09 22 02.6778711696 +50 58 35.737082868 10.43 10.09 9.22     ~ 1030 1
40 ESO 565-11 GiG 09 29 16.3782670344 -20 22 45.423723864   13.67   12.19   ~ 54 0
41 NGC 2905 H2G 09 32 10.111 +21 30 02.99 10.44 9.75 9.07 8.68   ~ 1057 3
42 NGC 2964 GiP 09 42 54.251 +31 50 49.97   12.0       ~ 265 1
43 NGC 2976 GiP 09 47 15.458 +67 54 58.97 11.77 11.03 10.16 9.51   ~ 626 1
44 NGC 2985 Sy1 09 50 22.233 +72 16 43.13   11.37 10.61     ~ 236 1
45 ESO 566-24 EmG 09 53 33.402 -19 34 59.13   13.60   12.41 12.9 ~ 41 0
46 M 81 Sy2 09 55 33.1726556496 +69 03 55.062505368   7.89 6.94     ~ 4201 3
47 NGC 3081 Sy2 09 59 29.5437024336 -22 49 34.747341960   13.06 13.55 11.67 12.1 ~ 440 0
48 NGC 3077 GiP 10 03 19.0965510921 +68 44 01.556166166 11.23 10.85 10.14 9.74   ~ 730 0
49 NGC 3180 GiG 10 18 16.985 +41 25 27.77   10.4       ~ 676 0
50 NGC 3227 GiP 10 23 30.5765149296 +19 51 54.282206700   12.61 11.79     ~ 1620 1
51 NGC 3310 AGN 10 38 45.85707 +53 30 11.8940   12.45 12.15     ~ 757 1
52 NGC 3338 SyG 10 42 07.5363224928 +13 44 49.177468104   12.1       ~ 239 0
53 NGC 3359 EmG 10 46 36.845 +63 13 25.10 10.83 11.03 10.57     ~ 356 1
54 NGC 3486 Sy2 11 00 23.946 +28 58 29.35 10.89 11.11 10.53 10.40   ~ 334 1
55 NGC 3504 LIN 11 03 11.191 +27 58 20.77   13.48 12.93     ~ 504 2
56 NGC 3507 GiP 11 03 25.3619733360 +18 08 07.607343732   11.4       ~ 171 0
57 NGC 3521 LSB 11 05 48.5680991376 -00 02 09.245076540 10.06 9.83 9.02 10.1 9.6 ~ 755 2
58 NGC 3596 H2G 11 15 06.2081129496 +14 47 13.284196332   12.01 11.49 10.99 10.45 ~ 186 0
59 NGC 3675 GiG 11 26 08.5641089832 +43 35 09.587062464   11.04   9.57   ~ 275 1
60 NGC 3681 GiG 11 26 29.7818937144 +16 51 48.245516928   12.2       ~ 139 0
61 NGC 3686 GiP 11 27 43.9717389912 +17 13 27.014601036   11.6       ~ 186 0
62 NGC 3718 GiP 11 32 34.8571790688 +53 04 04.520222040   11.35 10.61     ~ 360 1
63 NGC 3726 GiG 11 33 21.1367545656 +47 01 45.280222428   11.11   10.02   ~ 338 0
64 NGC 3898 LIN 11 49 15.370 +56 05 03.66   11.7       ~ 285 1
65 NGC 4027 IG 11 59 30.168 -19 15 54.62   11.71 11.10 10.60 11.5 ~ 237 1
66 NGC 4041 SyG 12 02 12.2376697152 +62 08 14.096124312   11.6       ~ 239 1
67 NGC 4062 EmG 12 04 03.8090248584 +31 53 44.489664636   11.90 11.21 10.62 10.03 ~ 253 0
68 NGC 4151 Sy1 12 10 32.5759813872 +39 24 21.063527532   12.18 11.48     ~ 3530 2
69 M 99 H2G 12 18 49.625 +14 24 59.36 10.45 10.44 9.87     ~ 846 2
70 NGC 4274 LIN 12 19 50.5930710456 +29 36 53.238538764 11.78 11.34 10.41     ~ 235 1
71 NGC 4293 LIN 12 21 12.891 +18 22 56.64   11.6       ~ 271 2
72 NGC 4314 LIN 12 22 32.0223000912 +29 53 43.814812200 11.72 11.43 10.58     ~ 468 1
73 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9299993592 +15 49 20.296257960 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1747 2
74 NGC 4394 GiP 12 25 55.6366312872 +18 12 50.110707636   11.9       ~ 350 0
75 NGC 4414 GiG 12 26 27.1276893168 +31 13 24.626206488 11.12 10.96 10.12     ~ 543 2
76 NGC 4450 LIN 12 28 29.5910654016 +17 05 05.976112020   10.90 10.08     ~ 534 2
77 NGC 4490 GiP 12 30 36.368 +41 38 37.07 10.03 10.22 9.79     ~ 551 3
78 M 88 Sy2 12 31 59.1525062448 +14 25 13.148971824   14.33 13.18     ~ 767 1
79 M 91 LIN 12 35 26.4446761320 +14 29 46.760333748   14.63 13.57     ~ 561 0
80 M 90 Sy2 12 36 49.8009839880 +13 09 46.523813040 10.56 10.26 9.54     ~ 850 1
81 NGC 4618 GiP 12 41 32.8976471760 +41 09 03.185175528 11.03 11.22 10.78     ~ 311 2
82 NGC 4651 LIN 12 43 42.6376070448 +16 23 36.002649300   11.30 10.92 10.42 9.84 ~ 488 0
83 NGC 4653 GiP 12 43 50.9205045168 -00 33 40.575860064   12.6   12.6 12.3 ~ 115 1
84 NGC 4654 GiP 12 43 56.638 +13 07 34.86   11.8       ~ 536 1
85 NGC 4689 H2G 12 47 45.5568088416 +13 45 46.135889100   12.8       ~ 362 0
86 NGC 4691 AGN 12 48 13.60 -03 19 57.7 11.59 11.66 11.08 11.8 11.3 ~ 238 1
87 NGC 4699 GiG 12 49 02.186 -08 39 51.49   10.8   10.01 10.3 ~ 199 0
88 M 94 SyG 12 50 53.0737971432 +41 07 12.900884628 9.15 8.96 8.24 7.78   ~ 1311 2
89 NGC 4731 GiP 12 51 01.095 -06 23 34.98   12.0   16.23 12.0 ~ 162 0
90 NGC 4753 GiG 12 52 22.112 -01 11 58.88 11.26 10.85 9.95     ~ 265 1
91 M 64 SyG 12 56 43.696 +21 40 57.57   9.36 8.52     ~ 881 2
92 NGC 4941 Sy2 13 04 13.1036380320 -05 33 05.752803672   13.18 12.23 10.74   ~ 335 0
93 NGC 5005 GiP 13 10 56.312 +37 03 32.19   14.67 13.67     ~ 521 2
94 NGC 5033 Sy1 13 13 27.535 +36 35 37.14   11.01 12.03 9.73   ~ 829 3
95 NGC 5054 GiP 13 16 58.488 -16 38 05.46   11.3   10.36 10.7 ~ 185 1
96 IC 4214 G 13 17 42.6918273984 -32 06 06.103910340   12.15 11.65 10.72   ~ 110 0
97 NGC 5068 G 13 18 54.807 -21 02 20.76 11.24 10.53 10.01 9.78 10.1 ~ 250 0
98 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4098 4
99 NGC 5195 GiP 13 29 59.590 +47 15 58.06 10.76 10.45 9.55 9.31   ~ 739 3
100 NGC 5247 GiG 13 38 03.0183262176 -17 53 02.645511252   10.77   9.96 10.5 ~ 211 0
101 NGC 5390 LIN 13 55 39.9385716624 +40 27 42.380606592   12.81 11.93 10.04   ~ 334 1
102 M 101 GiP 14 03 12.583 +54 20 55.50   8.46 7.86 7.76   ~ 2727 2
103 NGC 5713 GiP 14 40 11.528 -00 17 21.16 11.88 11.84 11.20     ~ 373 2
104 NGC 5905 H2G 15 15 23.3280793632 +55 31 01.926808032   13.6       ~ 263 1
105 NGC 5962 GiP 15 36 31.6809457296 +16 36 27.933030504 12.04 11.98 11.34     ~ 237 1
106 NGC 6015 G 15 51 25.2376583904 +62 18 36.233118396   11.69 11.14 10.61 10.08 ~ 221 0
107 NGC 6217 AGN 16 32 39.2100852960 +78 11 53.487076092   14.37 13.88     ~ 290 0
108 NGC 6643 G 18 19 46.370 +74 34 06.23   11.80       ~ 296 1
109 NGC 7217 LIN 22 07 52.3984675584 +31 21 33.632293572   12.94 11.92     ~ 476 0
110 NGC 7213 Sy1 22 09 16.2100443720 -47 10 00.115999716   10.97 12.08 10.50 10.6 ~ 623 0
111 NGC 7314 Sy1 22 35 46.1985355872 -26 03 01.564993476   11.62 13.11 10.61 11.4 ~ 532 0
112 NGC 7331 LIN 22 37 04.0506038088 +34 24 56.800076508 10.65 10.35 9.48     ~ 1174 2
113 NGC 7479 Sy2 23 04 56.6432243448 +12 19 22.357387020 11.74 11.60 10.85 10.47 9.66 ~ 708 2
114 NGC 7513 GiG 23 13 14.0669738568 -28 21 27.280137168   12.73   11.40   ~ 80 0
115 NGC 7606 EmG 23 19 04.7786629824 -08 29 06.331037820   11.5   10.47 11.1 ~ 184 0
116 NGC 7723 GiP 23 38 57.092 -12 57 39.68   11   10.78   ~ 185 0
117 NGC 7727 GiP 23 39 53.870 -12 17 34.84   11   10.55   ~ 166 0
118 NGC 7741 GiP 23 43 54.375 +26 04 32.07 11.70 11.84 11.31     ~ 278 1

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2022.08.10-07:31:13

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