1999ApJ...519..802K


Query : 1999ApJ...519..802K

1999ApJ...519..802K - Astrophys. J., 519, 802-833 (1999/July-2)

Dwarfs cooler than ``M'': the definition of spectral type ``L'' using discoveries from the 2 micron all-sky survey (2MASS).

KIRKPATRICK J.D., REID I.N., LIEBERT J., CUTRI R.M., NELSON B., BEICHMAN C.A., DAHN C.C., MONET D.G., GIZIS J.E. and SKRUTSKIE M.F.

Abstract (from CDS):

Before the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) began, only six objects were known with spectral types later than M9.5 V. In the first 371 deg2 of actual 2MASS survey data, we have identified another 20 such objects spectroscopically confirmed using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (LRIS) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Because the TiO and VO bands, which dominate the far-optical portions of late-M spectra, disappear in these cooler dwarfs, we define a new spectral class ``L'' in which metallic oxides are replaced by metallic hydrides and neutral alkali metals as the major spectroscopic signatures. We establish classification indices and type all 25 L dwarfs. The 26th ``post-M9.5'' object–Gl 229B–is the prototype of a methane-dominated spectral class, which we propose as class ``T.'' At least five of the 20 2MASS L dwarfs show the 6708 Å lithium doublet at low resolution, the strongest having an equivalent width of 18.5 Å. For objects this cool, the presence of lithium proves that they are substellar. Two other 2MASS objects appear to have lithium lines at the limit of our detectability, which if verified means that at least one-third of our L dwarfs are bona fide brown dwarfs. All of the 2MASS brown dwarfs discovered so far have J-Ks>1.30. We have not yet, despite deliberately searching for them, found any brown dwarfs with colors resembling Gl 229B (J-Ks~-0.1).

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Infrared: Stars - Stars: Atmospheres - Stars: Distances - Stars: Fundamental Parameters - Stars: Low-Mass, Brown Dwarfs

Nomenclature: Tables 1, 2: 2MASSs JHHMMSSs+DDMMSS N=12, 2MASSW JHHMMSSs+DDMMSS N=64.

Simbad objects: 79

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Number of rows : 79
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 2MASS J00100368+3436099 LM* 00 10 03.6923065536 +34 36 09.764724636           M8V 3 0
2 V* DY Psc BY* 00 24 24.6317407560 -01 58 19.954412004     19.42 17.301 15.022 M9.5V 199 1
3 PC 0025+0447 LM* 00 27 41.9817343344 +05 03 41.691766608           M9.5e 73 0
4 2MASSW J0030438+313932 BD* 00 30 43.8403218072 +31 39 32.036613732           L2V 16 0
5 2MASS J00553841+2756523 LM* 00 55 38.4251516544 +27 56 52.271712996           M7V 4 0
6 2MASS J01245068-3844389 LM* 01 24 50.6914305648 -38 44 39.018053976           M6 11 0
7 2MASSW J0129122+351758 BD* 01 29 12.21888 +35 17 58.0884           L4V 8 0
8 2MASSW J0147334+345311 BD* 01 47 33.4442673288 +34 53 11.083329816           L0.5V 11 0
9 2MASP J0147362+365855 LM* 01 47 36.2743932192 +36 58 54.053444208           M7V 1 0
10 2MASSW J0149090+295613 LM* 01 49 09.0028348631 +29 56 12.511555579           M9.5V 53 0
11 DENIS J020529.0-115925 BD* 02 05 29.3651195393 -11 59 29.721210536           L7V 146 0
12 2MASS J02422521+1343126 LM* 02 42 25.2087435936 +13 43 12.627309936           M6.5V 4 0
13 2MASSW J0242435+160739 BD* 02 42 43.5625196520 +16 07 38.892800676           L1.5V 6 0
14 2MASS J02440869+1715416 LM* 02 44 08.6938998696 +17 15 41.393736288           M6.5V 1 0
15 2MASS J02444613+1535313 ** 02 44 46.13352 +15 35 31.3764           M5V+M5.5V 3 0
16 2MASS J02451479+1203494 LM* 02 45 14.7944741592 +12 03 49.396108824           M5V 1 0
17 2MASS J02512220+2521236 LM* 02 51 22.2202448808 +25 21 23.558424192           M9V 8 0
18 2MASS J02512535+2625036 LM* 02 51 25.3616314968 +26 25 03.571033764           M9V 1 0
19 2MASS J03261367+2950152 BD* 03 26 13.6837078464 +29 50 15.242172504           L3.5V 18 0
20 2MASS J03263416+3000117 * 03 26 34.1674464648 +30 00 11.903446872           ~ 1 0
21 2MASS J03270905+3001303 * 03 27 09.05088 +30 01 30.3348           ~ 1 0
22 2MASS J03272046+2949589 * 03 27 20.4614382984 +29 49 58.984158468           ~ 1 0
23 2MASS J03272096+2958158 * 03 27 20.9613552072 +29 58 15.959361900           ~ 1 0
24 2MASS J03272347+2952307 * 03 27 23.4806781528 +29 52 30.684449820           ~ 1 0
25 2MASS J03273043+2955583 * 03 27 30.4370648928 +29 55 58.311635124           ~ 1 0
26 2MASS J03273640+2941177 * 03 27 36.3988271376 +29 41 17.707658424           ~ 1 0
27 2MASS J03280724+2904241 * 03 28 07.2546769080 +29 04 24.083430348           ~ 1 0
28 2MASS J03285432+2938273 * 03 28 54.3287049120 +29 38 27.242439648           ~ 1 0
29 2MASS J03292015+2917345 * 03 29 20.1496094520 +29 17 34.460070324           ~ 1 0
30 2MASS J03292142+2905334 * 03 29 21.4259814792 +29 05 33.417598704           ~ 1 0
31 2MASS J03292668+3000577 * 03 29 26.6862062352 +30 00 57.394947528           ~ 1 0
32 LP 944-20 LM* 03 39 35.2523500210 -35 25 43.641996333     18.69 16.39 13.288 M9.5Ve 280 0
33 Cl* Melotte 22 BRB 4 LM* 03 44 23.2342185648 +25 38 45.137111208         17.005 M6.5V 6 0
34 Cl* Melotte 22 KPNO 2 BD* 03 45 43.1616128256 +25 40 23.239779672         17.36 L0V 119 0
35 Wolf 1288 LM* 03 48 03.5071974792 +23 44 18.082255344   15.42 13.94 13.57   M7.5V 12 0
36 2MASS J03554191+2257016 BD* 03 55 41.91504 +22 57 01.6776           L3V 18 0
37 IRAS 03582+1819 C* 04 01 09.7174172232 +18 28 08.192916516           C 8 0
38 HD 42581B BD* 06 10 34.80 -21 52 00.0           T6.5 486 0
39 2MASS J07240956+1623016 LM* 07 24 09.5632444248 +16 23 01.547241396           M5.5V 1 0
40 Ross 683 PM* 08 50 27.4107904622 +07 37 17.309958783   12.06   11.1   G6 68 1
41 2MASS J08503593+1057156 BD* 08 50 35.93400 +10 57 15.6168       22.466 20.349 L6.5+L8.5 75 0
42 IRAS 08546+1732 C* 08 57 25.8366693168 +17 20 52.006027380       18.8   C 15 0
43 2MASS J09130320+1841501 BD* 09 13 03.20736 +18 41 50.1432           L3V 19 0
44 2MASS J09141884+2238134 LM* 09 14 18.8250419376 +22 38 13.234553916           M9.5V 4 0
45 2MASSW J0918382+213406 BD* 09 18 38.15736 +21 34 05.8188           L2.5V 12 0
46 [VV2006] J092145.7+191812 QSO 09 21 45.7126491576 +19 18 16.142183856   22.63 22.17 20.12   ~ 9 0
47 SIPS J1058-1548 BD* 10 58 47.8366017792 -15 48 17.250428304       20.095 17.764 L3V 90 2
48 2MASSW J1145572+231730 BD* 11 45 57.1458774144 +23 17 29.661415260           L1.5V 27 0
49 2MASS J11463449+2230527 BD* 11 46 34.5341033040 +22 30 54.036482400           L3+L4 86 0
50 2MASS J11550087+2307058 BD* 11 55 00.8851003272 +23 07 06.421018152           L4V 22 0
51 2MASS J11590028+2020563 LM* 11 59 00.2739916944 +20 20 56.242460760           M5.5V 1 0
52 2MASS J12140629+2027020 LM* 12 14 06.3047868360 +20 27 02.221377192           M7V 3 0
53 SIPS J1228-1547 BD* 12 28 15.23184 -15 47 34.2312       20.187 18.163 L5.5+L5.5 142 0
54 2MASS J12391934+2029519 LM* 12 39 19.3566181176 +20 29 51.905452092           M9V 10 0
55 NAME Kelu-1 BD* 13 05 40.1642434199 -25 41 05.712165150         16.85 L2+L3.5 245 0
56 2MASS J13144248+2241017 LM* 13 14 42.4740769248 +22 41 01.952734596           M6V 3 0
57 2MASS J13200790+2257217 LM* 13 20 07.8955114872 +22 57 21.715712280           M6.5V 1 0
58 2MASS J13285503+2114486 BD* 13 28 55.03776 +21 14 48.6024           L5V 25 0
59 2MASS J13340623+1940351 BD* 13 34 06.2093281896 +19 40 35.233481964           L1.5V 18 0
60 2MASS J13383330+2922255 LM* 13 38 33.2989987920 +29 22 25.350766068           M6V 1 0
61 2MASSW J1342236+175156 BD* 13 42 23.62272 +17 51 55.8036           L2.5V 7 0
62 GD 165B BD* 14 24 39.09480 +09 17 10.4352         20.53 L4V 201 0
63 LP 271-25 LM* 14 28 43.2275214164 +33 10 39.259309081   21.2   17.8   M9Ve 239 0
64 2MASS J14342644+1940499 LM* 14 34 26.4344486472 +19 40 49.753899264           M8V 9 0
65 2MASS J14392836+1929149 BD* 14 39 28.1499428599 +19 29 15.908790370           L1V 121 0
66 2MASSW J1439409+182637 BD* 14 39 40.91496 +18 26 37.0068           L1V 10 0
67 2MASSW J1553214+210907 BD* 15 53 21.42528 +21 09 07.1964           L5.5V 11 0
68 2MASS J16322911+1904407 BD* 16 32 29.11416 +19 04 40.7136       22.42 19.98 L8V 126 0
69 2MASS J17102545+2107155 LM* 17 10 25.4603354208 +21 07 15.313953360           M8V 5 0
70 VB 10 Er* 19 16 57.6109547886 +05 09 01.600923413     17.30     M8V 464 1
71 2MASS J20412089-0459426 LM* 20 41 20.8908853656 -04 59 42.661171788           M5V 1 0
72 EGGR 283 WD* 22 51 23.0280755320 +29 39 44.441403962   16.22   15.1   DA8.1 73 0
73 2MASS J22580659+1544154 LM* 22 58 06.5941363608 +15 44 15.367221096           M7.5V 2 0
74 2MASS J22583782+1620419 LM* 22 58 37.8411324216 +16 20 41.848987524           M6V 1 0
75 2MASS J22585897+1520461 LM* 22 58 58.9621937928 +15 20 46.112512200           M7V 4 0
76 2MASS J23001886+1210238 LM* 23 00 18.8756204424 +12 10 23.712734460           M4.5V 4 0
77 2MASS J23055186+1554038 LM* 23 05 51.8805361608 +15 54 03.427426368           M6V 1 0
78 2MASS J23082871+1309271 LM* 23 08 28.7086193400 +13 09 27.146982924           M6V 2 0
79 2MASS J23094618+1549045 LM* 23 09 46.2034639872 +15 49 04.077799104           M8.5V 3 0

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2022.12.08-13:57:01

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